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For at least two millennia before the advent of the Spaniards in 1519, there was a flourishing civilization in central Mexico. During that long span of time a cultural evolution took place which saw a high development of the arts and literature, the formulation of complex religious doctrines, systems of education, and diverse political and social organization. The rich docu For at least two millennia before the advent of the Spaniards in 1519, there was a flourishing civilization in central Mexico. During that long span of time a cultural evolution took place which saw a high development of the arts and literature, the formulation of complex religious doctrines, systems of education, and diverse political and social organization. The rich documentation concerning these people, commonly called Aztecs, includes, in addition to a few codices written before the Conquest, thousands of folios in the Nahuatl or Aztec language written by natives after the Conquest. Adapting the Latin alphabet, which they had been taught by the missionary friars, to their native tongue, they recorded poems, chronicles, and traditions. The fundamental concepts of ancient Mexico presented and examined in this book have been taken from more than ninety original Aztec documents. They concern the origin of the universe and of life, conjectures on the mystery of God, the possibility of comprehending things beyond the realm of experience, life after death, and the meaning of education, history, and art. The philosophy of the Nahuatl wise men, which probably stemmed from the ancient doctrines and traditions of the Teotihuacans and Toltecs, quite often reveals profound intuition and in some instances is remarkably “modern.” This English edition is not a direct translation of the original Spanish, but an adaptation and rewriting of the text for the English-speaking reader.


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For at least two millennia before the advent of the Spaniards in 1519, there was a flourishing civilization in central Mexico. During that long span of time a cultural evolution took place which saw a high development of the arts and literature, the formulation of complex religious doctrines, systems of education, and diverse political and social organization. The rich docu For at least two millennia before the advent of the Spaniards in 1519, there was a flourishing civilization in central Mexico. During that long span of time a cultural evolution took place which saw a high development of the arts and literature, the formulation of complex religious doctrines, systems of education, and diverse political and social organization. The rich documentation concerning these people, commonly called Aztecs, includes, in addition to a few codices written before the Conquest, thousands of folios in the Nahuatl or Aztec language written by natives after the Conquest. Adapting the Latin alphabet, which they had been taught by the missionary friars, to their native tongue, they recorded poems, chronicles, and traditions. The fundamental concepts of ancient Mexico presented and examined in this book have been taken from more than ninety original Aztec documents. They concern the origin of the universe and of life, conjectures on the mystery of God, the possibility of comprehending things beyond the realm of experience, life after death, and the meaning of education, history, and art. The philosophy of the Nahuatl wise men, which probably stemmed from the ancient doctrines and traditions of the Teotihuacans and Toltecs, quite often reveals profound intuition and in some instances is remarkably “modern.” This English edition is not a direct translation of the original Spanish, but an adaptation and rewriting of the text for the English-speaking reader.

30 review for Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind

  1. 5 out of 5

    Edward Butler

    Leon-Portilla successfully demonstrates that there was a class of professional intellectuals in Nahua society appropriately described as "philosophers" (the tlamatinime), and sketches in broad terms the parameters of their thought. I felt, however, that this book is in effect only half of the book that should have been written, because of the way Leon-Portilla undervalues Nahua theology. His monotheizing reduction of the Nahua pantheon means that he removes the content of Nahua thought and leave Leon-Portilla successfully demonstrates that there was a class of professional intellectuals in Nahua society appropriately described as "philosophers" (the tlamatinime), and sketches in broad terms the parameters of their thought. I felt, however, that this book is in effect only half of the book that should have been written, because of the way Leon-Portilla undervalues Nahua theology. His monotheizing reduction of the Nahua pantheon means that he removes the content of Nahua thought and leaves only the form, if that. It does not seem to occur to him that theological structures can provide the basis for philosophical reflection; instead, he assumes that philosophy and theology must be in opposition. This is clearly a projection of philosophy's situation in the Christian and Muslim world, but Leon-Portilla offers no evidence that a similar tension existed in Nahua society. This inability to question his own presuppositions is a serious defect in an otherwise bold, important book.

  2. 5 out of 5

    David

    A TOP SHELF review, originally published in The Monitor on May 2, 2013 Discovering Aztec Philosophy In 1963 noted scholar Miguel León-Portilla published Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind, an amplification (with assistance from translator Jack Emory Davis) of several previous works of his, including his ground-breaking doctoral thesis. The thrust of León-Portilla’s research is that the Nahuas, that group of Mesoamerican peoples called Aztecs in modern times, were not si A TOP SHELF review, originally published in The Monitor on May 2, 2013 Discovering Aztec Philosophy In 1963 noted scholar Miguel León-Portilla published Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind, an amplification (with assistance from translator Jack Emory Davis) of several previous works of his, including his ground-breaking doctoral thesis. The thrust of León-Portilla’s research is that the Nahuas, that group of Mesoamerican peoples called Aztecs in modern times, were not simply a polytheistic, warlike culture: they had developed a distinctive, refined philosophy on a level with that of the ancient Greeks. Drawing from diverse sources, including the corpus of Nahuatl poetry and the massive colonial ethnography known as the Florentine Codex, León-Portilla demonstrates the existence of a class of philosophers in the Aztec Triple Alliance known as tlamatinimeh or sages. Differently from the popular religion, in which a complex pantheon of deities controlled the natural world and human blood had to be spilled to ensure the sun’s survival, these sages reduced the divine to a single dual generative force and recognized life to be ephemeral, fragile, and uncertain. The vanity of humanity’s efforts, argues the author, and the impossibility of knowing the truth led these wise men to conclude that human existence on earth is essentially a dream. For some, that conclusion led to a hedonistic path, a lifestyle that encouraged an enjoyment of the flowers and friends of the moment. For others, however, belief in that primordial creative energy suggested a purpose: craftwork and artistic endeavors, none more important than the development of an īxtli, a face or persona that best reflected the soul. And the soul, León-Portilla proposes, was seen by the tlamatinimeh as a place for the divine to take up residence, drawn into the human heart by flower and song, a classic Nahuatl difrasismo (kenning) for poetry or song. Though this work is extremely important, it only scratches the surface of Nahua philosophy. León-Portilla largely ignores Nahua theology, so intent is he on demonstrating a supposed tension between the state religion and the emerging intellectual current. This is because he forces parallels with Greek, Roman and Christian philosophical trends. To my mind, Nahua thought more closely resembles the schools of thought in Hindui philosophy that similarly moved away from a polytheistic Weltanschauung to belief in a single ground to existence, a sacred force that unfolds into multiple forms in the physical universe. The root or balance of the cosmos the author sees in the Nahuatl term teōtl corresponds interestingly to Brahman, and as a result, the reduction by León-Portillo of this amorphous philosophical movement in pre-Colombian Mexico to a single “school” of thought that embraces Ometeōtl, the dual god, as the source of all strikes me as premature. Rather, I suspect that different schools may have considered one god or another as the most perfect mask of the divine source, perhaps embracing Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, Quetzalcoatl or even Tonantzin as the supreme iteration (much like Krishna-, Vishnu- or Shiva-centered varieties of Hinduism). Research into Nahua philosophy is, of course, ongoing, and I want to stress León-Portilla's important role in promoting the field of study.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Christine

    While I appreciate León-Portilla's attempt to justify the philosophic capacities of Nahuatl wise pre-European contact as well as his linguistic analyses, I was extremely put off throughout the book by his constant need to justify their philosophic abilities to that of the Greeks and his constant need to belittle the inherent philosophic natures of myths: "For although myths and beliefs constitute the primary attempts to solve the mysteries of the universe, true philosophic development requires c While I appreciate León-Portilla's attempt to justify the philosophic capacities of Nahuatl wise pre-European contact as well as his linguistic analyses, I was extremely put off throughout the book by his constant need to justify their philosophic abilities to that of the Greeks and his constant need to belittle the inherent philosophic natures of myths: "For although myths and beliefs constitute the primary attempts to solve the mysteries of the universe, true philosophic development requires conscious and formal inquiry" (3). This line sets the tone for the rest of the book. He equates myths to superstitions and magic contrasting them to the truth, which according to him can only be obtained through observation and experience. However, he fails to grasp that the many myths are the results of thousands of years of observation, experience, as well as conscious and formal inquiry. While I agree with his call to critically analyze myths, question them, and seek deeper meaning from them (especially in the light of the myth making style of the Aztec empire who by their own doing were also responsible for the burning of Indigenous writings and re-writing their mythological stories prior to the Spanish invasion); I cannot agree with his all together dismissal of myths as mere symbolism, metaphor, and superstition. Furthermore, he claims that the masses blindly followed these myths and it was only the professional wise men, tlamatinime, who were capable of analysis to seek deeper meaning of the symbols within the myths. Accordingly, to be TRUE healers HE must be not only be tlamatinime but also professional trained. The FALSE healers, or sorcerers, was a "quacks" whose training is only in magic, witchcraft.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Julian Greene

    Over the last couple of years, as a Pagan, I have been considering the nature of sacrifice. After a series of synchronicities and an encounter with a Huichol weather worker, I began reading this upon recommendation from a friend. People have criticized León-Portilla's view as being overly romantic. I found his soft, nearly poetic narrative very engaging. Critics/Historians have also pooh-poohed some of his interpretations as being his own projections, but that, it seems to me, is the way of (and Over the last couple of years, as a Pagan, I have been considering the nature of sacrifice. After a series of synchronicities and an encounter with a Huichol weather worker, I began reading this upon recommendation from a friend. People have criticized León-Portilla's view as being overly romantic. I found his soft, nearly poetic narrative very engaging. Critics/Historians have also pooh-poohed some of his interpretations as being his own projections, but that, it seems to me, is the way of (and the world's reaction to) the mystic. It is a book I shall read many more times, and I believe any Pagan interested in the subject of sacrifice and offering would find something to take away here.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Rafael Yaocoyotl

    Es un clásico de la etnohistoria mesoamericana, cuya primera edición fue de 1956, fue un hito en la investigación. No se puede juzgar desde la actualidad el trabajo, debido, sobre todo, a la cantidad de información que ha surgido desde entonces, especialmente, provista por la arqueología; dichos datos, salvo una gran excepción, han corroborado mucho de lo expuesto en el libro. Esta excepción es el gran fallo del autor: reconocer la existencia de una entidad única superior en la cosmovisión náhua Es un clásico de la etnohistoria mesoamericana, cuya primera edición fue de 1956, fue un hito en la investigación. No se puede juzgar desde la actualidad el trabajo, debido, sobre todo, a la cantidad de información que ha surgido desde entonces, especialmente, provista por la arqueología; dichos datos, salvo una gran excepción, han corroborado mucho de lo expuesto en el libro. Esta excepción es el gran fallo del autor: reconocer la existencia de una entidad única superior en la cosmovisión náhuatl, es decir, Ometeotl. A pesar de la exposición de muchos textos náhuatl en el libro, en ninguno de ellos se menciona la palabra Ometeotl, tal vocablo se creó, según lo parecen mostrar los indicios, como un intento de los religiosos cristianos para explicar la naturaleza de Yehweh, tan es así, que en los Romances de los Señores de la Nueva España, se tachan dioses prehispánicos, y se hacen notas, tales como Om. "Ometeotl", Dios, Teotl "dios", de mano ajena al redactor original indígena.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Victor Ruiz

    Must read if you are interested in the intersection of philosophy and the aztec world. Great to understand the development of philosophical concepts out of the establishment of religious beliefs in developed "non-western" societies. The criticisms I have read in some reviews are, in my opinion, unfounded. The comparison to the greek world is obvious and necessary when one is developing such work in the context of modern western organization and classification of knowledge. I would, nevertheless, Must read if you are interested in the intersection of philosophy and the aztec world. Great to understand the development of philosophical concepts out of the establishment of religious beliefs in developed "non-western" societies. The criticisms I have read in some reviews are, in my opinion, unfounded. The comparison to the greek world is obvious and necessary when one is developing such work in the context of modern western organization and classification of knowledge. I would, nevertheless, like to know if there is current archeological or documental evidence that the aztec pantheon of gods was not fully derived or developed from the duality principle represented in Ōmeteōtl.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Claire

    This is my latest read. I have to say, it's very well done. Strong sourcing, thorough analysis, and a very intuitive presentation of the Nahuatl language's incredibly nuanced structure (and the influence of this structure on philosophical development in Aztec and other Nahua cultures). Aztec philosophy may be seen as a Venn diagram of sorts; aesthetics, epistemology, and metaphysics all overlap, with the core philosophy of teotl (balance) at the center of the diagram. What's truly fascinating is This is my latest read. I have to say, it's very well done. Strong sourcing, thorough analysis, and a very intuitive presentation of the Nahuatl language's incredibly nuanced structure (and the influence of this structure on philosophical development in Aztec and other Nahua cultures). Aztec philosophy may be seen as a Venn diagram of sorts; aesthetics, epistemology, and metaphysics all overlap, with the core philosophy of teotl (balance) at the center of the diagram. What's truly fascinating is evidence of a push toward discrete philosophical contemplation of each of these themes in pre-conquest culture (said contemplation to be completed while maintaining balance, however). It is both tragic and endlessly diverting to theorize what direction the Nahua culture might've taken had it been allowed to continue down this path uninterrupted by steel-plated usurpers. I recommend this book highly (and also recommend you investigate the other works it references. The materials created during or after the arrival of the invading Spanish must be taken with the proverbial grain of salt due to the cultural imperialism of both conquistadors and friars, and their unfortunate tendency to dismiss as "barbaric" anything outside Christendom). Oh! And the book contains some excellent translations of the deeply profound work of Texcoco's favorite son, Nezahualcoyotl: Is it nelli [rooted, true, authentic] one really lives on the earth? Not forever on earth, only a little while here. Though it be jade it falls apart; though it be gold, it wears away; though it be a quetzal feather, it is torn asunder. Not forever on this earth, only a little while here.

  8. 4 out of 5

    A.H. Haar

    I read this book for a course I took on the history of ancient mesoamerica. And it. Was. Awesome.

  9. 5 out of 5

    David

    Excellent book for grasping concepts and ideas about traditional aztec thought.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Javier Girona

    A really enjoyable book to read, bringing up ideas such as the Tlamatinime, a kind of philosopher, teacher, spiritual guide that Dr Leon-Portilla claimed it existed in the Toltec world, which precede the nahuatl-aztec world. The author entertains the reader with the divine pantheon and exalts the figure of Ometeotl, a primal being, source of life, the start, support and giver of life, not just to humans and the whole nature, but for all divine beings, through the four which with their struggle a A really enjoyable book to read, bringing up ideas such as the Tlamatinime, a kind of philosopher, teacher, spiritual guide that Dr Leon-Portilla claimed it existed in the Toltec world, which precede the nahuatl-aztec world. The author entertains the reader with the divine pantheon and exalts the figure of Ometeotl, a primal being, source of life, the start, support and giver of life, not just to humans and the whole nature, but for all divine beings, through the four which with their struggle and competition for supremacy, originate the various cosmo-periods preceding the fifth age, Aztecs current age, the last of all before a cataclysm brings existence to its chaotic formless non-existence. The book reflects in nahuatl philosophy for the understanding of their concepts of hell, heaven, sacrifice, moon and sun cycles and its relationship to society, rituals, deities and son on. Even though he draws on mainly Spanish friars sources to explain their cosmology, he deeps into Nahuatl understanding of the world around them, the importance and organisation of their world, of the underworld, the meaning of life and death. There must have been lots of findings contradicting some of the concepts stated on this book but the beautiful journey of imagining the Nahuatl-Azted world in its efflorescence its like chocolate on your palate. Find an article related to this book on panacas.com I really recommend this reading.

  11. 4 out of 5

    James Millikan SJ

    León Portilla's text is a classic in the field. It covers topics ranging from Nahuatl religious, educational, and anthropological beliefs and thereby provides an authoritative account of Pre-Columbian culture. Both in terms of scope and depth, this text has no equal. My only major qualm with La filosofía náhuatl is its rather un-engaging style. Rather than using a more narrative or comparative methodology, León Portilla again and again opts for block-quotes followed by line-by-line exegesis. Th León Portilla's text is a classic in the field. It covers topics ranging from Nahuatl religious, educational, and anthropological beliefs and thereby provides an authoritative account of Pre-Columbian culture. Both in terms of scope and depth, this text has no equal. My only major qualm with La filosofía náhuatl is its rather un-engaging style. Rather than using a more narrative or comparative methodology, León Portilla again and again opts for block-quotes followed by line-by-line exegesis. The scholarship is insightful, but the author's stylistic choices at times makes the reading process repetitive and obscures larger themes. Still, with attention and dedication, this is a rewarding and illuminating read that is well worth the effort. I finished the book with many ideas to consider for my master's thesis on Mexican ethics and philosophical anthropology, and for that I am indebted to the the late professor's scholarship. Recommended to students of Latin American studies, history, anthropology, as well as to philosophy students looking to buttress curricula built around the Western Canon with alternative voices.

  12. 4 out of 5

    Justinian

    2016-10 - Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind (Revised Edition) Miguel León-Portilla (Author), Jack Emory Davis (Translator). 1990. 272 Pages. This was the first book suggested by my guide through Nahua thought. I have mixed feelings about it. It was informative but it felt claustrophobic. The author makes extensive use of Nahua documents that exist and early compendiums by Bernardino de Sahagún and others. He also looks for links in modern thought and practices especi 2016-10 - Aztec Thought and Culture: A Study of the Ancient Nahuatl Mind (Revised Edition) Miguel León-Portilla (Author), Jack Emory Davis (Translator). 1990. 272 Pages. This was the first book suggested by my guide through Nahua thought. I have mixed feelings about it. It was informative but it felt claustrophobic. The author makes extensive use of Nahua documents that exist and early compendiums by Bernardino de Sahagún and others. He also looks for links in modern thought and practices especially in rural communities where the veneer of Catholicism seems thin. He often presents the Nahua text and then parses out the translation for the meanings. My concern is in the definitions of and meanings of words … we know they change over time and influence. His translation of Teotl as God … I am uncertain. Others have translated it as power or as force and multiple word variations. The meaning of that word is vital because there is much difference of opinion about the nature of Nahua thought and religious expression. Were they monotheists, polytheists, materialists, pantheists ...? There is little consensus for a singular answer to that question. This is a foundational text in looking beyond what the popular image of Aztec religion was … this is the first real scholarly attempt to discern what were the under pinning’s and origins of religious thought and philosophy among the Nahua. The author is inconsistent at times in the message. I am pretty sure it is when he moves away from the what the Nahua were saying and tries to explain it in accordance with a singular theory... The authors seems to try and slant his explanations towards a monotheist vision of the Nahua though at time his texts seem to argue otherwise. I think this is merely the author trying to grapple with a mindset and reference alien to his own upbringing and formation. The patterns of thought and belief we are raised with are deeply implanted on us and accept by us as the norm … even when we seemingly change through education and experience far too often those early deep imprints become our default when something happens that challenge us. A good book, a foundational text flawed by the adherence to a pet theory but easily discernable to the reader.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Lydia

    Aztec Thought and Culture provides a useful introduction to and overview of Nahuatl philosophy and its place in Aztec-Mexica life just before the invasion. Some reviewers have taken issue with León-Portilla's focus on philosophy, claiming that it romanticizes Aztec life. To the contrary, I found the insistence on pursuit of a Nahuatl intellectual history refreshing. The authors historicize their source materials, clarify their own positionality, and offer etymological interpretations of the Nahu Aztec Thought and Culture provides a useful introduction to and overview of Nahuatl philosophy and its place in Aztec-Mexica life just before the invasion. Some reviewers have taken issue with León-Portilla's focus on philosophy, claiming that it romanticizes Aztec life. To the contrary, I found the insistence on pursuit of a Nahuatl intellectual history refreshing. The authors historicize their source materials, clarify their own positionality, and offer etymological interpretations of the Nahuatl sources. That's sound history. That León-Portilla chooses not to focus on the Aztecs military history is likely a response to an insistence on that aspect of Mexica life in earlier scholarship. That said, there were moments throughout the text when it seemed the text offered self-evident conclusions in lieu of extended interpretation or implications.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Sasha Jones

    This book focuses more on the 'thought' aspect than the more day to day aspects of the culture; most of it is devoted to encompassing Nahuatl philosophy, as discerned from poetry of the wise men, which is broken down in the text. This isn't /quite/ what I was looking for in my own research, but I still got quite a lot from it! My only real complaint is that sometimes it repeated the same thing a bit too often, but it does so in an effort to emphasize the central role of these concepts. On the wh This book focuses more on the 'thought' aspect than the more day to day aspects of the culture; most of it is devoted to encompassing Nahuatl philosophy, as discerned from poetry of the wise men, which is broken down in the text. This isn't /quite/ what I was looking for in my own research, but I still got quite a lot from it! My only real complaint is that sometimes it repeated the same thing a bit too often, but it does so in an effort to emphasize the central role of these concepts. On the whole, it presents a well-rounded understanding of the philosophy of these people, the more enlightened aspects of which are generally ignored in popular imagery and mythos of the Aztecs.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Juan

    Using primary nahuatl sources, secondary sources from the 1500s and the research from Friars, Historians and Anthropologists, Miguel León-Portilla's elaborates the Aztec religion was influenced by a 'mystico-militaristic' belief on the preservation of the Sun by warfare and sacrifice. Yet, existing along side, the Quetzalcoatl legend who attempted to discover the meaning of life through poetry and arts. The ideas of humanism and barbarism coexisted until the fall of Tenochtitlan. These opposing Using primary nahuatl sources, secondary sources from the 1500s and the research from Friars, Historians and Anthropologists, Miguel León-Portilla's elaborates the Aztec religion was influenced by a 'mystico-militaristic' belief on the preservation of the Sun by warfare and sacrifice. Yet, existing along side, the Quetzalcoatl legend who attempted to discover the meaning of life through poetry and arts. The ideas of humanism and barbarism coexisted until the fall of Tenochtitlan. These opposing ideas is alive today in Modern Mexico, where a 179.000 homicides have been documented in since 2006 (a conservative estimate), yet the arts are thriving in Mexico and abroad, the United States.

  16. 4 out of 5

    AskHistorians

    Leon-Portilla's Aztec Thought was of pivotal significance to the field of Aztec studies and is a truly remarkable interpretation of the philosophy and worldviews of Post-Classical Nahua peoples. Leon-Portilla's reevaluation of source materials and codices radically challenge many of the preconceived notions of Aztec society that laymen and academics alike, bringing to light the great importance of art and poetry to the Aztecs. Laymen schooled in Philosophy will have the easiest time work through Leon-Portilla's Aztec Thought was of pivotal significance to the field of Aztec studies and is a truly remarkable interpretation of the philosophy and worldviews of Post-Classical Nahua peoples. Leon-Portilla's reevaluation of source materials and codices radically challenge many of the preconceived notions of Aztec society that laymen and academics alike, bringing to light the great importance of art and poetry to the Aztecs. Laymen schooled in Philosophy will have the easiest time work through Leon-Portilla's interpretation, but all will walk away with a deeper appreciation of Aztec culture.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Redsteve

    Interesting. Source materials are Nahuatl codexes preserved from the Conquest as well as studies on the Aztec civilization and beliefs written by Europeans and Creoles in the 16th-19th Centuries - the oldest works actually based on interviews with Nuhuatl who were educated in the pre-Conquest Aztec empire. Includes beliefs on creation, cosmology, philosophy, ethics, etc - many very sophisticated. Some of the oldest studies were actually supressed by the Papacy and the Spanish government who fear Interesting. Source materials are Nahuatl codexes preserved from the Conquest as well as studies on the Aztec civilization and beliefs written by Europeans and Creoles in the 16th-19th Centuries - the oldest works actually based on interviews with Nuhuatl who were educated in the pre-Conquest Aztec empire. Includes beliefs on creation, cosmology, philosophy, ethics, etc - many very sophisticated. Some of the oldest studies were actually supressed by the Papacy and the Spanish government who feared that they would promote non-Christian beleif systems.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Darrell

    An excellent depiction of Nahuatl life and society. A very important read to understand how truly developed the Aztecs and the Nahuatl culture was in Pre-Columbian times. Difficult at times to push through in terms of reading, but the text unfods itself eventually and proves to be a very enlightening piece of literature.

  19. 5 out of 5

    pjr8888

    my edition is copyright 1963 library of congress catalog card number: 63-11019 first edition.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Swashbunny

    Slightly academic in writing style, but not so much to put off the casual reader. I would heartily recommend it to anyone with more than a passing interest in the Aztecs.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Matthew Despain

  22. 5 out of 5

    R. V.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Xicanopoet Gonzalez

  24. 5 out of 5

    Lauren

  25. 5 out of 5

    Mark Mirabello

  26. 5 out of 5

    Kelly Pattison

  27. 4 out of 5

    Jolanta Sokol

  28. 4 out of 5

    Linz

  29. 5 out of 5

    Jimmy

  30. 4 out of 5

    Ernesto Espinoza

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