web site hit counter The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia - Ebooks PDF Online
Hot Best Seller

The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia

Availability: Ready to download

From former assistant secretary of state Kurt M. Campbell comes the definitive analysis and explanation of the new major shift in American foreign policy, its interests and assets, to Asia. There is a quiet drama playing out in American foreign policy far from the dark contours of upheaval in the Middle East and South Asia and the hovering drone attacks of the war on terro From former assistant secretary of state Kurt M. Campbell comes the definitive analysis and explanation of the new major shift in American foreign policy, its interests and assets, to Asia. There is a quiet drama playing out in American foreign policy far from the dark contours of upheaval in the Middle East and South Asia and the hovering drone attacks of the war on terror. The United States is in the midst of a substantial and long-term national project, which is proceeding in fits and starts, to reorient its foreign policy to the East. The central tenet of this policy shift, aka the Pivot, is that the United States will need to do more with and in the Asia-Pacific hemisphere to help revitalize its own economy, to realize the full potential of the region's dramatic innovation, and to keep the peace in the world's most dynamic region where the lion's share of the history of the twenty-first century will be written. This book is about a necessary course correction for American diplomacy, commercial engagement, and military innovation during a time of unrelenting and largely unrewarding conflict. While the United States has intensified its focus on the Asia-Pacific arena relative to previous administrations, much more remains to be done. The Pivot is about that future. It explores how the United States should construct a strategy that will position it to maneuver across the East and offers a clarion call for cunning, dexterity, and ingenuity in the period ahead for American statecraft in the Asia-Pacific region.


Compare

From former assistant secretary of state Kurt M. Campbell comes the definitive analysis and explanation of the new major shift in American foreign policy, its interests and assets, to Asia. There is a quiet drama playing out in American foreign policy far from the dark contours of upheaval in the Middle East and South Asia and the hovering drone attacks of the war on terro From former assistant secretary of state Kurt M. Campbell comes the definitive analysis and explanation of the new major shift in American foreign policy, its interests and assets, to Asia. There is a quiet drama playing out in American foreign policy far from the dark contours of upheaval in the Middle East and South Asia and the hovering drone attacks of the war on terror. The United States is in the midst of a substantial and long-term national project, which is proceeding in fits and starts, to reorient its foreign policy to the East. The central tenet of this policy shift, aka the Pivot, is that the United States will need to do more with and in the Asia-Pacific hemisphere to help revitalize its own economy, to realize the full potential of the region's dramatic innovation, and to keep the peace in the world's most dynamic region where the lion's share of the history of the twenty-first century will be written. This book is about a necessary course correction for American diplomacy, commercial engagement, and military innovation during a time of unrelenting and largely unrewarding conflict. While the United States has intensified its focus on the Asia-Pacific arena relative to previous administrations, much more remains to be done. The Pivot is about that future. It explores how the United States should construct a strategy that will position it to maneuver across the East and offers a clarion call for cunning, dexterity, and ingenuity in the period ahead for American statecraft in the Asia-Pacific region.

30 review for The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia

  1. 4 out of 5

    Andrew

    The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia, is an interesting examination of the Pivot to Asia strategy the United States was discussing in 2016, written by Kurt Campbell, one of its co-authors. The Pivot strategy focuses on redeploying US political, military and economic assets to the Asia-Pacific region in order to capitalize on Asian economic dominance, safeguard US interests and allies, reduce the threat of a hegemonic China, and build multi-lateral treaties, organizations and alli The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia, is an interesting examination of the Pivot to Asia strategy the United States was discussing in 2016, written by Kurt Campbell, one of its co-authors. The Pivot strategy focuses on redeploying US political, military and economic assets to the Asia-Pacific region in order to capitalize on Asian economic dominance, safeguard US interests and allies, reduce the threat of a hegemonic China, and build multi-lateral treaties, organizations and alliances with co-operative Asian states. Campbell goes into detail about each of these subjects, as he explains the nuances of the Pivot idea and ways in which it can be realistically implemented. Pivot discusses building, improving and maintaining bilateral relations with numerous Asian states, as well as building and supporting multilateral regional groups to promote economic development, democratization, and support US interests in the region. The US currently has military alliances with Australia, Japan, South Korea, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, and is looking to expand ties with India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Zealand. Many of these states are members of various regional organizations, like ASEAN for example, and the Pivot strategy seeks to promote these multilateral organizations. It also seeks to promote organizations and treaties like the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) in order to improve US economic ties in Asia, and promote greater investment between many of Asia's economic powerhouses, like Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia and India. One of the main reasons for these alliance building measures seems to be the containment of China. Many of the current foreign policy schools of thought related to Asia are China-focused, and with good reason. China is a rapidly growing nation with increasing clout in the Asia-Pacific region. Its economic growth has brought millions out of poverty, and its support for economic cooperation is well respected in Asia and beyond. China and the US have excellent economic ties, both historical and contemporary, and continue to move billions of dollars in goods back and forth each year. However, the relationship between China and the US is strained. China has become increasingly provocative in regards to its territorial claims in the South China Sea. Its claims on US-backed Taiwan and the growing Taiwanese independence movement is concerning to China. The Korean flashpoint also causes strain, as US allies South Korea and Japan are increasingly threatened by growing North Korean nuclear sophistication. These issues have led to both diplomatic and military confrontations between the two states, as China seeks to assert its territorial claims, and the US seeks to uphold its doctrine of "Freedom of Navigation." In regards to China, the Pivot takes a multifaceted approach to China's rising influence in the region. The Pivot call for greater cooperation on common issues between the US and China. The US and China are the top two nations in the world in terms of emissions, and China has recently committed itself to combating its emissions issues by investing heavily in green technology and reducing its industrial externalities. It calls for increased bilateral relations between the US and China, in order to avoid accidental military confrontations on the sea, and to reduce the threat of hegemonic activity from China in the region. The Pivot is an interesting strategy because it seeks to avoid the Thucydides Trap - the notion that a rising power and an established power will eventually come to blows. The Pivot strategy seeks to avoid this by giving China space to breath and grow, while avoiding conflict and standing firm on existing commitments and principles important to US strategic thought in the region, such as liberal trade, democratic institutions, peace and stability and freedom of navigation. This book was well written in many ways, but does suffer from a few issues. First, and most importantly, the book is lacking in sources for many of the authors statements. Although it features a comprehensive source list, it also leaves many controversial statements and figures relatively unsourced, and some of its existing sources were not published at the time of this books publication - these issues leave fact checking difficult and needlessly tedious. A second point of concern for me was the objective of the book. Campbell writes the book with heavy accolades for then US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. The book almost seems like a hedge toward a future career if Clinton had won the 2016 Presidential Elections, and much of the books introduction is geared toward this objective. I found this portion of the book to have little to do with information on the Pivot, and instead it seemed a needless addition. My final concern has little to do with the book. When President Donald Trump was elected in 2016, he immediately tore apart many of the principles in this book, and opted for a bilateral approach to Asian relations. He left the TPP, has rankled allies in Australia, South Korea and Japan, and has escalated tensions to a high level with North Korea (which is also at fault). This, coupled with a planned cutback in US redeployment to the region, has been a major step backward for the US' Asia policy. Allies are become estranged, and the risk of a loss of US influence is becoming more likely, as Asian states turn away from an unpredictable US and into the economic umbrella of Chinese influence. Although Trump's policies are certainly not wholly negative, they do largely reduce the spirit and letter of the Pivot policy, and drastically alter the geopolitical considerations in the region. The Pivot was an excellent policy in terms of US strategic thought, and, at least for now, is largely shelved. However, some of these policies have been pursued by Trump. Greater bilateral relations have been pursued with both India and the Philippines, and THAAD missiles have been deployed in South Korea without forcing South Korea to purchase them - a face saving maneuver that also certainly reduced Chinese economic reprisals. With growing rhetoric around North Korea at the time of writing this review, and an increasingly confrontational stance against Chinese economic and trade policies, the US now seems to be a growing force for destabilization in the region - the complete opposite of the Pivot approach. Whatever ones opinions, the US Asian policy is certainly in flux, and the results for the region may range from beneficial to catastrophic. An interesting time indeed. All things told, this is an interesting book on US strategic thought in the Asia-Pacific region, with a particular focus on Sino-US relations. Although dated now, it is still possible for the Pivot policy to be dusted off and utilized in the future, and regardless, the various terms of the Pivot are interesting in regards to what they say on current US strategic thought in the region. Although this book does have its issues, it is still an interesting read and certainly worth a look especially as the Pacific region dominates headlines (at the time of writing).

  2. 5 out of 5

    Peter A

    This book provides a clear and passionate articulation of why we (citizens of the USA) as a nation need to “pivot to Asia”. In a nutshell, “the lion’s share of the history of the twenty-first century will be written in Asia, a region that encompasses half the world’s population and will contain three of the world’s largest economies by 2030.” As importantly the author makes clear that by neglecting to focus appropriately on Asia we run a very high risk of hurting ourselves in very tangible ways, This book provides a clear and passionate articulation of why we (citizens of the USA) as a nation need to “pivot to Asia”. In a nutshell, “the lion’s share of the history of the twenty-first century will be written in Asia, a region that encompasses half the world’s population and will contain three of the world’s largest economies by 2030.” As importantly the author makes clear that by neglecting to focus appropriately on Asia we run a very high risk of hurting ourselves in very tangible ways, e.g., jobs and influence. Put in a more positive way, we have the opportunity, by staying fully engaged in Asia, to “bend the arc of the Asian Century more toward the imperatives of Asia peace and prosperity and long-standing American interests.” There is much to like about the book • It is full of information on trends and US historical and present involvement in Asia • It has made a strong case for ensure that Asia’s operating system, which is emerging and has benefited from American presence. By operating system, the author means the “complex legal, security and practical arrangements that have underscored four decades of Asian prosperity and security and provide[d] the scaffolding for common efforts to solve transnational challenges. This operating system, which rests on principles like freedom of navigation, free trade, regional transparency, and peaceful resolutions of disputes, is at the core of Asia’s future and American interests.” • Likely to be controversial, are statements like the following: “No one is advocating an American withdrawal from the region (Middle East), but it cannot be in US interest to field a foreign policy so imbalanced that it allows for the concerns of one region to completely override our vital interests in others.” • The author does present a “detailed and lengthy ten-point plan” to strengthen the operating system in ways favorable to the region and the US. [more on this below] • From a personal perspective, the author starts and ends the book with his own involvement in the US State Department working for Secretary Clinton. I found these very engaging. • Furthermore, he has a chapter of lessons learned in diplomacy, which is wonderfully told. There are a few things that I did not like. In particular there is a great deal of repetition in between chapter. And as the author stated himself, his “detailed and lengthy ten-point plan” includes multiple “subpoints”. One gets the impression that he is writing to his successors at the State Department the instruction manual to continuing the pivot to Asia. Living now in DC, I have to wonder whether he is writing this for himself, if Secretary Clinton becomes President H. Clinton. Finally, I hope that the logic in this book compels the future administration, Congress, and the public that this pivot is in our national interest, that this should be a bipartisan issue, and that failure is not an option. For those readers from other countries, I believe you will find this interesting, but be prepared for a very US centric perspective. The author is doing what needs to be done to motivate the US public to embrace the pivot, something that has not been well marketed the current administration, alas. I would give this a 4.5 start rating, but that is not an option.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Viet Nguyen

    Đây là một quyển sách khá dài về một chiến lược ngoại giao mới của Mỹ đối với châu Á, có tên là "The Pivot" (Xoay trục). Chiến lược này được đề ra và thực hiện dưới thời Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Hillary Clinton. Tác giả cuốn sách Kurt Campbell chính là cựu trợ lý Ngoại trưởng Mỹ phụ trách Đông Á - Thái Bình Dương từ năm 2009 đến năm 2013. Ở những chương đầu tiên, ấn tượng của tôi là khá hứng thú vì nó bắt đầu với việc phân tích lịch sử, tình hình xã hội của các nước châu Á và lịch sử quá trình can dự của Đây là một quyển sách khá dài về một chiến lược ngoại giao mới của Mỹ đối với châu Á, có tên là "The Pivot" (Xoay trục). Chiến lược này được đề ra và thực hiện dưới thời Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Hillary Clinton. Tác giả cuốn sách Kurt Campbell chính là cựu trợ lý Ngoại trưởng Mỹ phụ trách Đông Á - Thái Bình Dương từ năm 2009 đến năm 2013. Ở những chương đầu tiên, ấn tượng của tôi là khá hứng thú vì nó bắt đầu với việc phân tích lịch sử, tình hình xã hội của các nước châu Á và lịch sử quá trình can dự của Mỹ vào khu vực này. Nhiều chi tiết khá hay và khá nhiều số liệu như: - Châu Á là một khu vực quan trọng đối với vận tải biển: 9/10 cảng biển nhộn nhịp nhất trên thế giới ở châu Á, hàng năm trên 1/2 tải trọng thương mại thế giới cùng 1/2 khối lượng khí đốt thương mại và 1/3 khối lượng dầu lửa thương mại đi qua biển Đông. Do đó, các hành động khiêu khích ở biển Đông là rất đáng quan ngại. - Chi phí quân sự ở các nước châu Á bắt đầu tăng cao. - Công nghệ ở châu Á cũng rất phát triển. Ví dụ, Mỹ không bao giờ có một nơi nào như Foxconn City ở Trung Quốc, một tổ hợp công nghệ rộng lớn với phần lớn chuỗi cung ứng ở ngay tại địa điểm này. - Điện ảnh: thành công ở Á đã trở nên thiết yếu với các nhà làm phim. Với một số bộ phim, chính phủ Trung Quốc đặt ra quy định 30% số tiền đâu tư và nhân công phải từ các nguồn của Trung Quốc và bộ phim đó phải phản ảnh một chủ đề về Trung Quốc. Chẳng trách mà Iron Man 3 có thêm những cảnh quay cho Phạm Băng Băng hay Vương Học Kỳ. - Lịch sử của Mỹ can dự vào châu Á dựa trên những trụ cột chính: thương mại, truyền bá tôn giáo, thúc đẩy dân chủ - Hình mẫu can dự của Mỹ vào châu Á thường là sau một lúc can dự sâu thì lại đến một giai đoạn rút lui, không quan tâm do các thách thức ở trong nước hoặc các khu vực khác vẫy gọi. Ở những chương tiếp theo, khi tác giả trình bày về chiến lược Xoay trục thì tôi cảm thấy hơi khô khan và có cảm giác như đang đọc một bản Chính sách của chính phủ ấy :) Nhất là phải đến hơn trăm trang tác giả liên tục nói "Thứ nhất là, thứ hai là, cuối cùng là" như một dạng liệt kê các đề mục của chính sách. Tuy nhiên, về nội dung thì vẫn mới mẻ đối với tôi, nó trình bày khá đầy đủ về Mỹ nên làm gì với từng quốc gia châu Á. Vì quá dài, xin trích dẫn luôn 10 thành phần của chiến lược Xoay trục: "(1) Làm rõ Chiến lược Xoay trục, (2) tăng cường các mối quan hệ đồng minh của Mỹ, (3) định hình sự trỗi dậy của Trung Quốc, (4) xây dựng những mối quan hệ đối tác mới, (5) theo đuổi nghệ thuật lãnh đạo về kinh tế, (6) tham gia các thể chế khu vực, (7) tăng cường lực lượng Mỹ, (8) thúc đẩy các giá trị dân chủ, (9) tăng cường các mối quan hệ ngoại giao nhân dân, và (10) tiếp cận các dối tác châu Âu." Mỹ phải đối diện với nhiều thách thức trong việc thực hiện Xoay Trục: - Sự rạn nứt trong đồng thuận về chính sách đối ngoại - Chi tiêu quốc phòng giảm sút - Tính quan liêu lớn trong công tác đối ngoại - Trung Đông đã kéo mất nguồn lực và sự quan tâm của lãnh đạo Mỹ khỏi châu Á - Các nước châu Á đang trở nên chán nản với xu hướng thiếu tập trung của Mỹ. Sách cho đến chương cuối cùng thiếu đi màu sắc cá nhân của tác giả, chỉ toàn nói về chính sách. May mà tôi vẫn còn lết được đến chương cuối để tác giả trình bày những kinh nghiệm cá nhân của mình. Kurt đưa ra một số bài học ngoại giao cho những thế hệ cán bộ tiếp theo khi làm việc với các nước châu Á. Tóm lại, sách đọc không thực sự xuất săc nhưng được cái gãy gọn và trình bày được nhiều điểm của Chính sách Xoay Trục. Màu sắc cuốn sách khá là lạc quan rằng Mỹ sẽ làm được tốt hơn trong ngoại giao với châu Á trong tương lai. Tuy nhiên, đây là chính sách được đề ra và thực hiện dưới thời tổng thống Obama và ngoại trưởng Clinton. Vào thời điểm năm 2018, dưới thời Donald Trump, tôi tự hỏi chính sách này sẽ đi về đâu.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Hunter Marston

    A prescient overview of why Asia matters for America and a sweeping vision of US grand strategy in Asia, this book still overlooks a great deal of the success in the Obama years. Perhaps this is because the author, former Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, retired from government when Hillary Clinton's term as Secretary of State was up in 2013. The core of the book reads as dry policy prescription, and the author's personality only shines through in the final chapter A prescient overview of why Asia matters for America and a sweeping vision of US grand strategy in Asia, this book still overlooks a great deal of the success in the Obama years. Perhaps this is because the author, former Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, retired from government when Hillary Clinton's term as Secretary of State was up in 2013. The core of the book reads as dry policy prescription, and the author's personality only shines through in the final chapter with amusing anecdotes from his time in government.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Maggie

    This book outlined a foreign policy strategy beginning in the Obama era that eschews previous emphasis on the Middle East to focus on Asian politics as the "future of American politics abroad." It structures its argument in 10 principles, and very much promotes a traditional internationalist strategy that involves closely engaging the region and our allies. The author throws in some interesting anecdotes from his time in the State department, and tries to bring in some humor/relatability as well This book outlined a foreign policy strategy beginning in the Obama era that eschews previous emphasis on the Middle East to focus on Asian politics as the "future of American politics abroad." It structures its argument in 10 principles, and very much promotes a traditional internationalist strategy that involves closely engaging the region and our allies. The author throws in some interesting anecdotes from his time in the State department, and tries to bring in some humor/relatability as well by making analogies to some funny quotes or classic American movies. Brought up some interesting ideas and maybe pushed me further internationalist on certain issues, but very much an appeal to a status quo form of foreign policy engagement just applied to a new region. It acknowledges valid concerns, for example, about some failures in international policy that have caused domestic exhaustion but doesn't address them adequately in my opinion to fully convince me that increasing the defense budget and other actions Campbell promotes are the best option.

  6. 4 out of 5

    Maria

    Campbell served as a deputy of Asia under Secretary of State Hilary Clinton. This is his story, a brief recap of America's historical interactions and ties with the Asian countries and his prescription of where future statecraft and diplomacy should aim for. Why I started this book: Living in Asia, I was interested in what the future should have been. Why I finished it: This book was well thought out, insightful and heartbreaking. Published the summer of 2016 it is full of what should have been. T Campbell served as a deputy of Asia under Secretary of State Hilary Clinton. This is his story, a brief recap of America's historical interactions and ties with the Asian countries and his prescription of where future statecraft and diplomacy should aim for. Why I started this book: Living in Asia, I was interested in what the future should have been. Why I finished it: This book was well thought out, insightful and heartbreaking. Published the summer of 2016 it is full of what should have been. This book is the GPS directions and our current President with his wild swings and attention shifts means that as I was listening to this book all I could hear in the back of my mind was a computerized voice saying "Route recalculating..." over and over again.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Nick

    Well-written narrative explaining why it is in the US's national interest to remain engaged with Asia. There are certain points that one may respectfully disagree with, but they are nonetheless well supported and fit within the overall recommendations. The only downside of this book is that those well versed in US issues related to Asia will find much of the background information is already widely accepted. However, this information also makes the book accessible to readers with less familiarit Well-written narrative explaining why it is in the US's national interest to remain engaged with Asia. There are certain points that one may respectfully disagree with, but they are nonetheless well supported and fit within the overall recommendations. The only downside of this book is that those well versed in US issues related to Asia will find much of the background information is already widely accepted. However, this information also makes the book accessible to readers with less familiarity with Asia.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Antony

    This is not just a good articulation of what the intention of the Pivot strategy was, but a very good outline of US-Asia relations from the beginning. There are some interesting references to New Zealand too!

  9. 5 out of 5

    Iang95ify .

    An overview on why Asia has been important to USA (the past, the present and the future) and what is needed to manage the critical relationships between its trading partners, military allies to secure American interests and influence in the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. 4 out of 5

    John DeRosa

    I guess I expected more about strategy implementation than his anecdotes of a Burma trip on Air Force One. He had quite the potential to fulfill

  11. 5 out of 5

    Pamela

    Good read. Interesting to consider the perspective vs what is being reported as happening.

  12. 5 out of 5

    David Rice

    Fairly informative book that was about twice as long as it should be. Whenever a book gets this long it tends to be repetitive and this was certainly the case here in my opinion.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Eric

    I found the work interesting for the most part; however, I came to question the seriousness of the author’s scholarship. Early on he made a perfectly rational statement against getting involved in land war in Asia, but used as illustration a quote by one of the characters from the movie, “Princess Bride,” to that affect. Much later on he uses the Woodie Allen quote about so much of life being a matter of “just showing up” as the rationale for how the United States would be better off in handling I found the work interesting for the most part; however, I came to question the seriousness of the author’s scholarship. Early on he made a perfectly rational statement against getting involved in land war in Asia, but used as illustration a quote by one of the characters from the movie, “Princess Bride,” to that affect. Much later on he uses the Woodie Allen quote about so much of life being a matter of “just showing up” as the rationale for how the United States would be better off in handling its Asian affairs. After mulling these two over a bit I had to ask myself how serious could be a program titled “The Pivot” in adequately outlining a changed direction in American foreign policy. Looking at Campbell’s Wiki page and his web site “The Asia Group” has me wondering if, perhaps, he got to the State Department as Asst Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs in 2009, found he could do little to further foreign policy in any real sense, and left in 2013 to work full time at making a living in his area of expertise. The only real objection I found was his repeated call for more money and more resources to improve the USA’s performance in some are of its Asia policy – the ever-increasing largesse of the US taxpayer seems in his world inexhaustible.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Davis Florick

    It was an alright book. However, the author oversold the concept and left out a number of vulnerabilities and other problems. As an advocacy item it was fine, but it requires understanding the author's perspective. It was an alright book. However, the author oversold the concept and left out a number of vulnerabilities and other problems. As an advocacy item it was fine, but it requires understanding the author's perspective.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Karl

    Asia is important, don't forget about Asia in foreign policy and normal balance of power geo-politics may not work this time around. Worth a read of you like Forpol. I thoroughly enjoyed this book but it is much the same FP mindset that has directed USFP for decades. Asia is important, don't forget about Asia in foreign policy and normal balance of power geo-politics may not work this time around. Worth a read of you like Forpol. I thoroughly enjoyed this book but it is much the same FP mindset that has directed USFP for decades.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Finbarr

    Two years too late... the fabled pivot appears to be dead.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Mark Witzke

    Great overview of American strategy in Asia. Got extremely repetitive though and could have used a more personal touch. Often read like an official government briefing.

  18. 5 out of 5

    wcgllc!

  19. 4 out of 5

    Chris Alexander

  20. 4 out of 5

    Nick Massey

  21. 4 out of 5

    Brad

  22. 4 out of 5

    Frank Kelly

  23. 5 out of 5

    Emily

  24. 5 out of 5

    Matthew Hanzel

  25. 4 out of 5

    Alicia

  26. 5 out of 5

    Yusemi

  27. 5 out of 5

    Parker

  28. 5 out of 5

    James

  29. 5 out of 5

    Toàn Phúc

  30. 5 out of 5

    Jason Foley

Add a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Loading...
We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.