web site hit counter On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1 - Ebooks PDF Online
Hot Best Seller

On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1

Availability: Ready to download

Most readers think that superheroes began with Superman’s appearance in Action Comics No. 1, but that Kryptonian rocket didn’t just drop out of the sky. By the time Superman’s creators were born, the superhero’s most defining elements—secret identities, aliases, disguises, signature symbols, traumatic origin stories, extraordinary powers, self-sacrificing altruism—were alr Most readers think that superheroes began with Superman’s appearance in Action Comics No. 1, but that Kryptonian rocket didn’t just drop out of the sky. By the time Superman’s creators were born, the superhero’s most defining elements—secret identities, aliases, disguises, signature symbols, traumatic origin stories, extraordinary powers, self-sacrificing altruism—were already well-rehearsed standards. Superheroes have a sprawling, action-packed history that predates the Man of Steel by decades and even centuries. On the Origin of Superheroes is a quirky, personal tour of the mythology, literature, philosophy, history, and grand swirl of ideas that have permeated western culture in the centuries leading up to the first appearance of superheroes (as we know them today) in 1938. From the creation of the universe, through mythological heroes and gods, to folklore, ancient philosophy, revolutionary manifestos, discarded scientific theories, and gothic monsters, the sweep and scale of the superhero’s origin story is truly epic. We will travel from Jane Austen’s Bath to Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Mars to Owen Wister’s Wyoming, with some surprising stops along the way. We’ll meet mad scientists, Napoleonic dictators, costumed murderers, diabolical madmen, blackmailers, pirates, Wild West outlaws, eugenicists, the KKK, Victorian do-gooders, detectives, aliens, vampires, and pulp vigilantes (to name just a few). Chris Gavaler is your tour guide through this fascinating, sometimes dark, often funny, but always surprising prehistory of the most popular figure in pop culture today. In a way, superheroes have always been with us: they are a fossil record of our greatest aspirations and our worst fears and failings.


Compare

Most readers think that superheroes began with Superman’s appearance in Action Comics No. 1, but that Kryptonian rocket didn’t just drop out of the sky. By the time Superman’s creators were born, the superhero’s most defining elements—secret identities, aliases, disguises, signature symbols, traumatic origin stories, extraordinary powers, self-sacrificing altruism—were alr Most readers think that superheroes began with Superman’s appearance in Action Comics No. 1, but that Kryptonian rocket didn’t just drop out of the sky. By the time Superman’s creators were born, the superhero’s most defining elements—secret identities, aliases, disguises, signature symbols, traumatic origin stories, extraordinary powers, self-sacrificing altruism—were already well-rehearsed standards. Superheroes have a sprawling, action-packed history that predates the Man of Steel by decades and even centuries. On the Origin of Superheroes is a quirky, personal tour of the mythology, literature, philosophy, history, and grand swirl of ideas that have permeated western culture in the centuries leading up to the first appearance of superheroes (as we know them today) in 1938. From the creation of the universe, through mythological heroes and gods, to folklore, ancient philosophy, revolutionary manifestos, discarded scientific theories, and gothic monsters, the sweep and scale of the superhero’s origin story is truly epic. We will travel from Jane Austen’s Bath to Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Mars to Owen Wister’s Wyoming, with some surprising stops along the way. We’ll meet mad scientists, Napoleonic dictators, costumed murderers, diabolical madmen, blackmailers, pirates, Wild West outlaws, eugenicists, the KKK, Victorian do-gooders, detectives, aliens, vampires, and pulp vigilantes (to name just a few). Chris Gavaler is your tour guide through this fascinating, sometimes dark, often funny, but always surprising prehistory of the most popular figure in pop culture today. In a way, superheroes have always been with us: they are a fossil record of our greatest aspirations and our worst fears and failings.

48 review for On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1

  1. 4 out of 5

    Cat (cat-thecatlady)

    really interesting but there were too many names and references to keep up and actually retain some info full review here: https://catshelf.wordpress.com/2015/0... really interesting but there were too many names and references to keep up and actually retain some info full review here: https://catshelf.wordpress.com/2015/0...

  2. 5 out of 5

    Jim

    This is a fascinating chronicle of the history of the superhero. I had no idea that by the time Superman came around, "superhero" had been in the vernacular for decades. I mean, if you think that superheroes started in the 1930s and 40s with Superman and Batman, you're a little bit off. Almost 20,000 years off. Since people have been communicating and telling stories, there have been superheroes. Chris Gavaler walks us through the last several millennia, discussing who these superheroes are, whe This is a fascinating chronicle of the history of the superhero. I had no idea that by the time Superman came around, "superhero" had been in the vernacular for decades. I mean, if you think that superheroes started in the 1930s and 40s with Superman and Batman, you're a little bit off. Almost 20,000 years off. Since people have been communicating and telling stories, there have been superheroes. Chris Gavaler walks us through the last several millennia, discussing who these superheroes are, where they come from, why they're here, and how they've evolved. But this book had a different structure than I imagined. I thought it would be merely a history of fictional characters that fit the superhero mold of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. But it's much more than that. It also places these heroes within the context of their environment and history and discusses the social issues that they encounter, fought against, or were oppressed by. It places these "super"heroes and "super"villains within their political and social context. I guess it makes sense if you think about it, but there's a surprising amount of theology in this book. And superheroes are so political! So many seem to have been created in the cause of revolution. What is a superman? Are they fascist in adherence to carrying out a code that other people, or the government don't agree with? We realize that there's always been a gray area our (super) heroes operate in. Subverting authority and revolution always have two sides. Each are equally supported and vilified. Which is right? Gavaler also teaches us that sometimes we need to fabricate our villains that produce the superheroes. The Native Americans were a people that we oppressed, but we hid that fact by building up American superheroes and making the indigenous peoples supervillains. He then compares that frontier to the digital one on the Internet. Though he I don't think he spends enough time contrasting them. But while he doesn't contrast the heroes and villains of the western frontier against those of the digital as well as I'd like, he doesn't pull many punches in discussing the poor use of the Native American in pop culture - both in comics and movies. Also fascinating are the roots of superheroes you see in gothic monsters. Batman anyone? This is even where Morpheus got his start; though as a Der Sandmann, a 17th century fairy that kidnapped sleepy children as food for his own children. He also discusses evolution, and what our future holds. Should we be afraid of an advanced race? Of robots that we've created? And it's not all wild speculation. Will these future beings be "our descendants or our conquerors?" Included in this chapter is the obligatory discussion of duality. But under the umbrella of evolution it takes a different tone that I haven't read about before. And eugenics! I had no idea that at the turn of the century (around 1900) there were organizations established to prevent "improper" breeding! That's scary stuff. Yes, Virginia, there are supervillains, and they didn’t come from comic books. Plus he pulls in tons of references from pop culture for each of these. For example, for eugenics, it's not just turn-of-the-century pulp fiction, but comic books, comic book movies, Harry Potter, Orphan Black. And the next to last chapter - all about love, sex, and superheroes - covers a number of topics. The draw of the secret identity, the hypermasculinity of the superhero, and the pornographic history of both DC and Marvel comics. I didn't know both publishing companies were borne out of soft-porn sleaze magazines. And it's obvious that some comics can claim the ancestral roots of these stories. And the last chapter addresses how the superhero is Other, yet is also always Us. That's the power of the superhero. They are definitely (and obviously) super, where we are not; yet are eternally definitely relatable to us in some way. What especially interests me is the violence. That seems to me the most disturbing thread running through all our heroes - the absolute need to solve everything through violence. Or even, the requirement to solve these things through violence because it's the only way. Several years ago, after watching the hopelessness in the film Sin City, I wrestled with this very thing. Primarily because this is my favorite genre - what do these stories then teach? And what does it say about me? I actually stopped watching superhero stuff for a while. Because this theme is even in the most childish of cartoons. I'm trying to remember how I reconciled it. I must have, though, since I’m still reading them. Not sure how to recommend this. I loved it. But then this fits perfectly within my interests - superheroes and comics. If you like them, I think you'll find this extremely interesting. But even if you don't, there's enough history, theology, and politics in this book that I would think it has a high range of appeal. Also, it's well-written and accessible, which isn't always true of scholarly non-fiction. So I guess I'd recommend it to anyone interested in superheroes, or anyone just interested in history, theology, or other branches superheroes cross. Thanks to NetGalley and University of Iowa Press for a copy in return for an honest review.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Dustin Prisley

    A fascinating and literate analyses of the phenomenon of superheroes from early literature to the ubermensch, to Siegel and Schuster and beyond, this book, given to me as a Christmas present two years ago and a favourite ever since, is a must have for fans both of classic literature, history, and the funny books. Dr. Gavaler adeptly traces the lineage of superheroics in the popular and literary imagination from before even the Scarlet Pimpernel, adeptly displaying the enduring importance of clas A fascinating and literate analyses of the phenomenon of superheroes from early literature to the ubermensch, to Siegel and Schuster and beyond, this book, given to me as a Christmas present two years ago and a favourite ever since, is a must have for fans both of classic literature, history, and the funny books. Dr. Gavaler adeptly traces the lineage of superheroics in the popular and literary imagination from before even the Scarlet Pimpernel, adeptly displaying the enduring importance of classics such as Paradise Lost, while arguing for the importance today, because of rather than in spite of their classic progenitors, of our favourite superheroes.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Steven Pilling

    This is pretty strong as a history , using thematic rather than linear system Some things are missing but no book can be that big .

  5. 4 out of 5

    Brittney Martinez

    I was provided a free copy by NetGalley in exchange for an honest review. Before Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Captain Marvel, there was… who? That is exactly what Chris Gavaler tries to answer in his book On the Origin of Superheroes. Gavalar works his way from the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1 and explores the history of the superhero with a passionate intelligence and a touch of geekdom. The idea of superheros, or Übermensch as Nietzsche refers to them, has a long and storied history. Gaval I was provided a free copy by NetGalley in exchange for an honest review. Before Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Captain Marvel, there was… who? That is exactly what Chris Gavaler tries to answer in his book On the Origin of Superheroes. Gavalar works his way from the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1 and explores the history of the superhero with a passionate intelligence and a touch of geekdom. The idea of superheros, or Übermensch as Nietzsche refers to them, has a long and storied history. Gavaler traces the earliest recordings of a superhuman to cave drawings in Lascaux. Humans obsession with superheroic figures dates back from Gilgamesh to Jesus to Barack Obama. Galavar argues that “superheroes, like most any pop culture production, reflect a lot about us.” Superheroes are a culmination of the best of us and don’t have a shred of the worst of us. And they care about humanity and want to save us from outside evil. What’s not to love? Gavaler’s structural choices are On the Origin of Superheroes’ greatest strength. He literally begins with the Big Bang and moves forward, hitting the most important points in history that depict and define superheroes. The way the book’s structure parallels the history of the universe really solidifies the idea that superheroes are deeply ingrained in human history. Gavaler also takes this time to hit on points in history where a folk hero, like Paul Revere, appears. Gavaler uses these folk heroes to explain what a superhero is and isn’t. Defining and redefining the idea of the superhero is Gavaler’s constant aim, and he does it intelligently. Another strong aspect of the book is Gavaler’s voice. He’s always quick to bring in an anecdote or throw in a bit of trivia to break up the scholarly material (though, I admit, it doesn’t read like scholarly material). Gavaler’s makes his enthusiasm for his subject material evident by peppering these tiny digressions throughout the book. There’s one digression in particular where he contemplates what the Justice League would be like if the god Maui were to be a part of the team. These digressions often make me smile without breaking my immersion of the text. As Gavaler makes his way through the history of the superhero, he follows one major digression: what role superheros play in everyday society. He explores this topic by examining the influence of superheroes on terrorists and the role of the anti-hero in acting out our darkest desires. By exploring these kinds of philosophical questions, Gavaler brings another dynamic to the text that increases its re-readability. Were this just a history lesson, I don’t feel like I would ever pick this book back up again. However, since my personal views on philosophy are always evolving, it’s good to know there’s a text that I can continually revisit throughout my life where its meaning will evolve as I do. However, Gavaler’s diversions were also On the Origin of Superheroes’ biggest failing. While I have no problem with his personal anecdotes and musings, I do have a problem with situations where the text strays from the topic at hand. Gavaler has a tendency to also talk about the history of comics rather than keeping his focus on superheroes. He does this when talking about the cave drawings in Lascaux. Gavaler admits that the superhero image is a smart part of this enormous drawing. (Seriously, it’s huge. Like it spans across multiple caves.) Gavaler only admits this tiny caveat about the superhero drawing after he spends a few paragraphs drawing comparisons between the structure of the cave drawings and the structure of comic books. Despite it being interesting, I’m reading this for the heroes, dammit! These digressions read as unimportant additional information that take away from the focus of his thesis. On the Origin of Superheroes is an infectiously fun read for scholarly book, though I do feel it could benefit from a touch of editing. Gavaler’s enthusiasm for superheroes will make even the most uncool non-comic reader become interested in the subject matter. There’s a definite need in the human psyche that superheros fill, which is why they will be an everlasting figure in our art. I recommend this title for fans of scholarly writing about pop culture as well as the average superhero fan.

  6. 4 out of 5

    Brendan Davis

    On the Origin of Superheroes is exactly what it purports to be. If you're looking for a book that follows the history of modern comic book companies, luminaries like Stan Lee or Jack Kirby, or a discussion involving the history of superheroes, you're in the wrong place. But if you're looking for a discussion about the literary and cultural foundations of superheroes, look no further. The author has done his research, and the book is very comprehensive on the origins of superheroes. He manages to On the Origin of Superheroes is exactly what it purports to be. If you're looking for a book that follows the history of modern comic book companies, luminaries like Stan Lee or Jack Kirby, or a discussion involving the history of superheroes, you're in the wrong place. But if you're looking for a discussion about the literary and cultural foundations of superheroes, look no further. The author has done his research, and the book is very comprehensive on the origins of superheroes. He manages to competently walk the tightrope between academic dissection of ideas, and a casual tone that really wants you to know just how cool and interesting all of this is. It makes reading the book feel like you're having a discussion with a cool professor rather than doing homework. The book is divided into eight chapters, each of which is focused on a certain aspect of the superhero's origins. One chapter focuses on their pulp roots, one focuses on the superhero story as an evolution of the western, one discusses how they are modern Jesuses and Hercules, and so on. All of the chapters are thoroughly researched, though the chapters are uneven. The chapter that focuses on superheroes as demigods particularly stands out to me as something the author felt needed to be included, but didn't actually have much to say. I was really excited to read this chapter, but by the end I felt that it was a collection of the apparent. The author seems to lack an understanding of modern comics, which I feel is detrimental to a lot of his editorializing. In particular the chapter on superheroic morality (Can a Superhero Kill?) lacks a modern sensibility and shows that the author doesn't seem to be aware of books like New Avengers, Superior Spider-Man or X-Force, all of which are firmly in the mainstream and have gone a long way toward defining the current tone at Marvel. That's absolutely fine when Mr. Gavaler is talking about the cultural origins of superheroes, and how they are a uniquely American synthesis of many genres. But it's really frustrating when he's talking about the relationship modern superheroes have toward morality, and his opinion seems largely informed by where superheroes have been, rather than where they are. None of that takes away from home well the book is researched, laid out, and well written. There are so many neat observations and connections that I know I'll re-read a few of the better chapters when I get a hankering for this kind of information. From talking about the ties between superheroes and the KKK to discussing proto-superheroics in turn-of-the-century silent French films, the book manages to pack a lot of cool tidbits into a digestible framework. As long as you're fine with the idea that the book is written from a historical perspective (and you should, since it's in the title), I would very much recommend this book to anyone trying to figure out where superheroes came from. Please note: I received an advance copy from Net Galley in exchange for an honest review.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Debbie

    This is a bit of a hard book to review because it was not what I expected, yet at the same time, exactly what it purported to be. This is an academic work and is therefore a bit denser than most people are used to. I admit that I had to remind my brain about how to read an academic work, which is prone to throwing many different names at the reader with very little context, as opposed to even a pop non-fiction book. This took several chapters before I got my brain back into academic mode. That sa This is a bit of a hard book to review because it was not what I expected, yet at the same time, exactly what it purported to be. This is an academic work and is therefore a bit denser than most people are used to. I admit that I had to remind my brain about how to read an academic work, which is prone to throwing many different names at the reader with very little context, as opposed to even a pop non-fiction book. This took several chapters before I got my brain back into academic mode. That said, this was a super interesting book that followed superhero tropes through human storytelling history. Given the title, I guess I had expected more actual superheroes in the narrative. Instead, Gavaler explored the figures that preceded the superheroes that appeared in the comic books of DC and Marvel etc. These included mythological/religious figures, historical icons, and the heroes of old Westerns and noir pulps. At the same time, he placed superheroes into political, cultural, and social contexts, sometimes in ways that made me uncomfortable to be such a huge fan of fictional characters with roots in eugenics and white supremacy. It was a fairly quick read for an academic work--much quicker than I remember some of my old history textbooks from college to be. And Gavaler was obviously as much of a superhero nerd as I was, making quick asides that were phrased to be an in-joke, a quiet nod to his fellow nerds. That said, it is still an academic work and fairly dense. Some may find it a boring slog, in fact, when they were expecting something more light-hearted based on the subject matter. (They should probably not be looking at a university press, then.) I also wish that Gavaler had slowed down and given a bit more backstory sometimes to the figures he threw at the reader. This was less of a problem later on in the book, but earlier when he was writing about mythological and historical figures, he could have provided more background, particularly since some of the figures he discussed were very obscure. Second, he seemed to assume that the reader was familiar with current superheroes and their stories, and would casually mention Magneto, or the Dark Phoenix saga with no context of their relevance. If the reader was a comic book nerd, this is not a problem. But an unsuspecting reader who has only a passing familiarity with superheroes and comic books would have probably been at least a bit confused and lost. This was a problem throughout the book. It may seem odd to consider that there is anybody alive who doesn't know Batman has a sidekick named Robin, but I'm sure that person is out there (though he or she would probably not pick up this book, so perhaps this point of criticism is moot). Third, I felt that despite his great scholarship and analysis, Gavaler skirted around a critical question of, "Why superheroes?" Why are we fascinated by them and love them? And why did they see a resurgence and unprecedented rise in popularity recently? Review copy courtesy of the publisher via Netgalley

  8. 4 out of 5

    poesielos

    I'm still fairly new to the ever expanding universe of comic books and their culture, but Gavaler's take on the superheroes of the genre is simply amazing! 'On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1' delivers exactly what the title promises: Gavaler reconstructs the roots of the superhero archetype which Action Comics No. 1 gave to us in 1938. The most different influences from mythology, literature, philosophy, history and pop culture mix with reflections on the two I'm still fairly new to the ever expanding universe of comic books and their culture, but Gavaler's take on the superheroes of the genre is simply amazing! 'On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1' delivers exactly what the title promises: Gavaler reconstructs the roots of the superhero archetype which Action Comics No. 1 gave to us in 1938. The most different influences from mythology, literature, philosophy, history and pop culture mix with reflections on the two most prominent superheroes – Batman and Superman – and are backed up with personal anecdotes from Gavaler. It's a great strength of his to make his arguments easy to follow, especially because he isn't necessarly working through them in a periodic order, and explain the connections between everything in a simple and logical way. There's for example a lot of name dropping happening of course but Gavaler takes the time to explain roughly backstories or movie scenes, and makes me want to check out these things on my own later on instead of discouraging the reader. The way this book is written, I wouldn't immediately believe it to be a non-fiction book published by a University press... but this is the way I actually love scholarly books: well researched and presented in a way that non-scholars also can pick them up! Personally, I wouldn't mind to read another work of Gavaler following the next few decades of superheroes but for now his blog will do as well! Even if one isn't interested in superheroes or comics per se is 'On the Origin of Superheroes: From the Big Bang to Action Comics No. 1' alone for the complex interweaving of different cultural aspects with pop culture a must read for anyone interested in this subject – and comic book lovers will definitely enjoy it too!

  9. 4 out of 5

    Theediscerning

    The introduction to this book has the author admit his academic colleagues question the validity of him researching and teaching about superheroes. It's a pity then that the people who will get the most out of these pages are those blinkered fellow professors, for the mishmash of personal biography and serious academe will fall on deaf ears belonging to too many readers of the sequential arts. The first chapter takes the mythology of comics and thrusts it up against those regular ones of our kno The introduction to this book has the author admit his academic colleagues question the validity of him researching and teaching about superheroes. It's a pity then that the people who will get the most out of these pages are those blinkered fellow professors, for the mishmash of personal biography and serious academe will fall on deaf ears belonging to too many readers of the sequential arts. The first chapter takes the mythology of comics and thrusts it up against those regular ones of our known religions, and shows comparisons, before the superhero becomes both an embodiment of the character and quality Napoleon's contemporaries saw in him (as a different collective saw in Cromwell), and the good/evil dichotomy and darkness comes both from later fictions, such as the evil that features in the Faust legend, the occult/Fortean as represented by Spring-Heeled Jack and the heroism of the ubermenschen. The Wild West (and Anonymous hackers) leads us to vigilantes, and the neologism 'metaethnic'. Of course, the very American and British idea of eugenics helped propagate the superman meme as well. If you want to look at superheroes and comics through a book that uses the lenses of both Ayn Rand and Jane Austen, then do so – but be aware this book uses the first person far too much. So much so, that when it finally presents you with the Powerpoint nitty-gritty of 'what makes a superhero' it still finds time to waffle about family holidays, and post-colonialist sources of superpowers. Of course.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Whitney

    I'm so happy about superhero scholarship branching out. For a long time now it seems like books about superheroes were limited to less-than-serious looks at generic tropes and shifting characters through time. Occasionally someone would release a book about their personal history with superheroes. And though this book doesn't quite deliver the kinds of insights I would really like to see, and though it is firmly entrenched in popular criticism (maybe, as comics scholars Beaty and Miodrag claim b I'm so happy about superhero scholarship branching out. For a long time now it seems like books about superheroes were limited to less-than-serious looks at generic tropes and shifting characters through time. Occasionally someone would release a book about their personal history with superheroes. And though this book doesn't quite deliver the kinds of insights I would really like to see, and though it is firmly entrenched in popular criticism (maybe, as comics scholars Beaty and Miodrag claim because there seems something co-optive and elitist about academic theorizing of a populist medium) I'm still glad it was published.

  11. 4 out of 5

    Angel Hatfield

    Superheroes did not start in the 1930’s - 1940’s. But along time before. Mr. Gavaler talks of the evolution of and villains you will definitely like this. Although I must say so much information was given it was all a little hard to comprehend but I do recommend this. superheroes and villains such as a villain from the 17th century as Du Sandman - a fairy who stole sleepy kids to feed his own children. He also shows the most common thread to our heroes is violence. I found that interesting and t Superheroes did not start in the 1930’s - 1940’s. But along time before. Mr. Gavaler talks of the evolution of and villains you will definitely like this. Although I must say so much information was given it was all a little hard to comprehend but I do recommend this. superheroes and villains such as a villain from the 17th century as Du Sandman - a fairy who stole sleepy kids to feed his own children. He also shows the most common thread to our heroes is violence. I found that interesting and thought about it and realized how very true this is . If you love super heroes

  12. 4 out of 5

    Kristine

    On the Origin of Superheroes by Chris Gavaler is a free NetGalley book that I read during a dinner party in late October. Okay, so I was mostly drawn to this book because of BatNapoleon, but there was more to it than that, honestly. This book is a conglomerated comics-history-pop-culture nerd's dream. There is a fluid timeline, oodles of fanboy references per chapter, and a narrative voice that is wittier than your average liberal-arts professor's. On the Origin of Superheroes by Chris Gavaler is a free NetGalley book that I read during a dinner party in late October. Okay, so I was mostly drawn to this book because of BatNapoleon, but there was more to it than that, honestly. This book is a conglomerated comics-history-pop-culture nerd's dream. There is a fluid timeline, oodles of fanboy references per chapter, and a narrative voice that is wittier than your average liberal-arts professor's.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Fantasy Literature

    4 stars by Bill: http://www.fantasyliterature.com/revi... 4 stars by Bill: http://www.fantasyliterature.com/revi...

  14. 5 out of 5

    Martin Lund

  15. 4 out of 5

    G.R.S. Hjelm

  16. 5 out of 5

    K

  17. 4 out of 5

    Amaranth

  18. 4 out of 5

    ~Geektastic~

  19. 4 out of 5

    Eric

  20. 5 out of 5

    Paul Fischer

  21. 5 out of 5

    Thomas Joyner

  22. 4 out of 5

    Chris

  23. 4 out of 5

    Joy

  24. 5 out of 5

    Justin Hickey

  25. 5 out of 5

    Victoria Lloyd

  26. 5 out of 5

    Elisabeth

  27. 5 out of 5

    Josh

  28. 5 out of 5

    Gm

  29. 5 out of 5

    David Blaylock

  30. 5 out of 5

    Amber

  31. 5 out of 5

    Nostalgia Reader

  32. 5 out of 5

    Guido Sanchez

  33. 4 out of 5

    Elena

  34. 5 out of 5

    Melissa Horadam

  35. 5 out of 5

    Felisha

  36. 5 out of 5

    Amelia

  37. 4 out of 5

    Kaytlin

  38. 4 out of 5

    Jaclyn Hogan

  39. 5 out of 5

    Heather J.

  40. 5 out of 5

    Dani

  41. 5 out of 5

    Jennifer

  42. 5 out of 5

    Katie

  43. 5 out of 5

    Morgan Podraza

  44. 5 out of 5

    Frank

  45. 4 out of 5

    Emily

  46. 4 out of 5

    Victoria

  47. 4 out of 5

    Erika L. Miller

  48. 4 out of 5

    Aubrey

Add a review

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Loading...
We use cookies to give you the best online experience. By using our website you agree to our use of cookies in accordance with our cookie policy.