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This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Pr This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Professions explains how 'increasingly capable systems' -- from telepresence to artificial intelligence -- will bring fundamental change in the way that the 'practical expertise' of specialists is made available in society. The authors challenge the 'grand bargain' -- the arrangement that grants various monopolies to today's professionals. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of their best is enjoyed only by a few. In their place, they propose six new models for producing and distributing expertise in society. The book raises important practical and moral questions. In an era when machines can out-perform human beings at most tasks, what are the prospects for employment, who should own and control online expertise, and what tasks should be reserved exclusively for people? Based on the authors' in-depth research of more than ten professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the relevance of the professions in the 21st century.


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This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Pr This book predicts the decline of today's professions and describes the people and systems that will replace them. In an Internet society, according to Richard Susskind and Daniel Susskind, we will neither need nor want doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others, to work as they did in the 20th century. The Future of the Professions explains how 'increasingly capable systems' -- from telepresence to artificial intelligence -- will bring fundamental change in the way that the 'practical expertise' of specialists is made available in society. The authors challenge the 'grand bargain' -- the arrangement that grants various monopolies to today's professionals. They argue that our current professions are antiquated, opaque and no longer affordable, and that the expertise of their best is enjoyed only by a few. In their place, they propose six new models for producing and distributing expertise in society. The book raises important practical and moral questions. In an era when machines can out-perform human beings at most tasks, what are the prospects for employment, who should own and control online expertise, and what tasks should be reserved exclusively for people? Based on the authors' in-depth research of more than ten professions, and illustrated by numerous examples from each, this is the first book to assess and question the relevance of the professions in the 21st century.

30 review for The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts

  1. 4 out of 5

    Trevor

    One of the most interesting books by Richard Sennett I’ve read is The Craftsman. It is too easy to think of a craftsperson as someone who is very skilled, that is, to focus on their skills, while what they really are is someone who takes flawed and particular materials and knows how to accommodate, to work around those flaws so as to make something virtually perfect. This is an incredibly important idea and so I’m going to stress it a bit since this bespoke notion of the craftsperson is central One of the most interesting books by Richard Sennett I’ve read is The Craftsman. It is too easy to think of a craftsperson as someone who is very skilled, that is, to focus on their skills, while what they really are is someone who takes flawed and particular materials and knows how to accommodate, to work around those flaws so as to make something virtually perfect. This is an incredibly important idea and so I’m going to stress it a bit since this bespoke notion of the craftsperson is central to the idea of what a professional is in this book. A craftsperson is someone who applies their skill to the particularity of the circumstances they are confronted with – the grain of the stone, the maturity of the wood, the coarseness of the fibres – and they are then able to make a bespoke product from these materials, adjusting their technique to the requirements and limitations of the materials at hand. Now, this is the opposite of the way products are manufactured in industry. The division of labour requires ‘standardised inputs’. If a craftsperson is able to produce a product that incorporates and embraces the flaws in the raw materials it is required to deal with, industrial manufacture is universal because it standardises these inputs so as to also standardise the outputs. Repeatedly throughout this book the authors stress that the key unifying idea of a professional is that they provide bespoke solutions to their clients’ problems. Some of this depends on a professional’s access to knowledge that is difficult to acquire, and since we all live in a complex society, it is important that some of us specialise in acquiring that knowledge. Often this isn’t explicit knowledge that you pay for, but rather tacit knowledge – that is, the professional can’t tell you how they know, but they still know all the same. This might sound like professionals trying to justify their advantages and hide the source of those advantages, but actually, tacit knowledge is a very important human skill. Tacit knowledge comes out of experience, in fact, enough experience that we are often unable to put into words what it is we ‘just do’. And since we find it impossible to describe or even know we are using this tacit knowledge, it is difficult to see how we could program a computer to do it. And that is the interesting thing about this book. They repeatedly make the point that AI doesn’t have to do things in the same way that humans do them to get the same or even better results. The point out that humans can’t beat a computer at chess, but not because the computer plays chess like a human – it really doesn’t – it plays chess like a computer – crunching millions of combinations via brute computational force. And so, the Turing test overstates the problem – even if we know the computer is a computer it can still be, in effect, more intelligent than we are. That is, in much the same way that industrial manufacture isn’t the same as craft manufacture, it isn’t that the output needs to be identical to the output of a craftsperson, but it does matter that the output is fit for purpose. That is, knowing the difference between a handcrafted lampshade and a manufactured one doesn’t necessarily mean I’m going to always choose the handcrafted one. The authors tell one of those management stories that they use to explain this idea early in the book – where some management consulting firm is talking to a meeting of executives from a power tool company and they show the executives some photos of a drill and ask, ‘is this what you sell to your customers?’ The executives assume this is some sort of trick, but eventually agree that it is – to which the consultants say, ‘no, you sell the hole in the wall, the drill is just your latest way of making that hole’. Yeah, yeah. But the authors make good use of this story as they go on – so, what is the hole that professions sell their clients? And to what extent will technology be able make that ‘hole’ in ways that will not require professionals to work or engage with their clients in the ways that they do today? A point they make is that there is likely to be latent demand in the economy. That is, people, who would like to go see a doctor or a lawyer or one of any other groups of professionals, but who can’t simply because such bespoke services from professionals are insanely expensive. And that the extreme expense of professional services makes these services remarkably unevenly distributed in society, which in turn works against our society being fair or democratic. As such, the shift towards redesigning these services so that they can be provided by information systems is likely to provide huge benefits for a wide number of people across society. And that this democratising of access to professional advice is going to be hard to stop as communication technology becomes increasingly all-pervasive. They also make the point that professional workers generally seek to stress the bespoke aspects of their work – you know, the accountant who needed to do the accounting version of a triple back summersault with a pike to ensure the maximum tax return for their client – whereas, in reality and overall, most of the tasks associated with their job are routine and fairly simple. That is, the authors aren’t saying that all professional jobs will necessarily disappear in the next few years, but what they are saying is that a great many of the tasks that professionals do are able to be taken from them by network design, AI, process re-engineering and so on. As such, the work that professionals do is likely to change significantly and even if this doesn’t eliminate their jobs entirely, it will significantly change those jobs, probably to the point where they are barely recognisable. Basically, this book provides us with a vision into the future presenting a kind of Fordist reshaping of professional work. A lot of what I’ve been reading lately has stressed that most of the jobs that are about to disappear due to automation are those in the middle – that is, the paraprofessionals, rather than the professionals. The reasoning being that paraprofessionals generally do routine work professionals avoid. However, this book thinks paraprofessionals may have more going for them than we imagine. They are cheaper than professionals, they are highly trained in the specific tasks they perform – in much the same way that the division of labour in factories broke down complex craft skills into smaller and simpler ones – and they are also often required to have more interpersonal skills than the ‘content knowledge specialists’ who are the true professionals. This level of simplification of work roles and specialisation of individual tasks is exactly what the Fordist industrial revolution brought for us at the turn of the last century in turning crafts into a division of labour – and so it isn’t clear why it wouldn’t do much the same when it is being applied to professional work. This book provides a useful discussion of what a professional is, it gives a history of the development of professions and also compelling visions of how they are likely to change over the coming decades. This is a seriously interesting book.

  2. 4 out of 5

    Paul Fulcher

    Richard and Daniel Susskind are a father and son team. Between them they have written 8 previous books focusing on the future of the legal profession in a technological age. In The Future of the Professions they turn their attention more widely to the professions in general. Their overall conclusion, rather stark for anyone working in the professions, but which the Susskind's regard as a very positive outcome: "Increasingly capable systems will bring transformations to professional work that will Richard and Daniel Susskind are a father and son team. Between them they have written 8 previous books focusing on the future of the legal profession in a technological age. In The Future of the Professions they turn their attention more widely to the professions in general. Their overall conclusion, rather stark for anyone working in the professions, but which the Susskind's regard as a very positive outcome: "Increasingly capable systems will bring transformations to professional work that will resemble the impact of industrialisation on traditional craftsmanship [...] giving birth to new ways of sharing practical expertise. In the long run [ ...] our professions will be dismantled incrementally." To declare an interest, I'm an actuary, one of the professions that falls within their scope. Although they point out frequently that many professionals "argue that what we say applies right across the professions except in one field - their own", so I will resist that temptation, albeit I frequently found myself falling into the trap. By far the strongest part of the book is the first 40 pages (Chapter 1), an excellent summary of what the professions are, the reason for their existence and the "grand bargain" with society. They don't attempt a rigorous definition of profession, but do identify four overlapping similarities: 1. Specialist knowledge 2. Admissions depends on credentials 3. Activities are regulated - both granted exclusivity by law, and internal standards and codes of conduct 4. Bound by a common set of values [Although oddly one of the examples they most commonly use to illustrate their point are the "professional services" firms, including management consultancy, which seems to be not to feature many of these points.] And they explain the contract with society thus: "In acknowledgement of an in return for their expertise, experience, and judgement, which they are expected to apply in delivering affordable, accessible, up-to-date, reassuring and reliable services, and on the understanding that they will curate and update their knowledge and methods, train their members, set and enforce standards for the quality of their work, and that they will only admit appropriately qualified individuals into their ranks, and that they will always act honestly, in good faith, putting the interests of clients ahead of their own, we (society) place our trust in the professions in granting them exclusivity over a wide range of socially significant services and activities, by paying them a fair wage, by conferring upon them independence, autonomy, rights of self-determination and by according them respect and status." Interestingly, they point out there are other ways this could have been achieved, quoting Andrew Abbott (The System of Professions) "the generalised expertise of the imperial civil services, the lay practitioners of certain religious groups, the popular diffusion of expertise characteristic of micro computing" [NB this quote dates from 1998, hence the language in the last example]. The remainder of the book sets out what the authors perceive as the problems with this model and their vision for the opportunity in the 21st Century. As other reviewers have noted, this part shares the common failings of many similar books - saying in 250 pages what could easily have been said in 30, largely to pad out the book to the length that justifies the cover price. For example Chapter 2 consists of a tedious 50 page dump of almost any current example they can find across different fields of systems encroaching on the professions. They also talk a lot about "research" and "the evidence we have uncovered", although a lot of this seems to be "reflecting on the writings of others" and anecdotal information from discussions. However, the kernel of their hypothesis is worth study, as they argue: 1. Professions are purely a means to an end, not the end itself, and simply "an artefact that we have built to meet a particular set of needs on a print-based industrial society" i.e. the best way for providing "practical expertise" (which they define as formal-knowledge+know-how+expertise+experience+application skills) . While the availability of printed books "gave rise to an explosion in the quantity and complexity of recorded information", this actually gave rise to the professions to "make sense of, manage, and apply" this knowledge. But in the fourth wave of information (oral to script to print to information technology), the same set-up is no longer necessarily appropriate. 2. "Our primary need is only for a reliable outcome ... Were it not for recipients' limited understanding and corresponding need for knowledge, there would be no trust required, no reassurance desired, no quality to control, no services or behaviours to regulate." I.e. the whole professional ethos itself is merely a means to an end. They are particular harsh on the "shroud of mystery [that] is thrown over certain institutions, protecting them from challenge and change. And those who mystify use language, custom, clothing, and rhetoric as the tools of their trade" 3. But "levels of access and affordability to the practical expertise that the professions provide fall short of acceptable." Hence there is a moral imperative to widen this access and transform (even end) the professions. 4. Knowledge unlike physical goods can be consumed by many people ("non-rival") indeed its re-use often makes it more valuable. This overcomes a lot of issues with wider sharing of this practical expertise that otherwise arise ["the tragedy of the commons" (Garrett Hardin)]. 5. Information technology offers increasingly better, and different, ways to disseminate practical expertise other than via the professions. And this isn't simply a case of automating what they do and making professionals more efficient, but bypassing them altogether "not by copying high-performing people but by exploiting the distinctive capabilities of new technologies, such as massive data-storage capacity and brute-force processing." They regard this attempt to computerise human thinking as a failing of the first wave of expert systems from the 1980s, with which they themselves were involved ("in the professions certaintly, thirty years on, there are far fewer operational expert systems of the sort we had developed than we expected"). They quote Robert Winston "There are lots of ways of being smart that aren't smart like us", and Richard Feynman "it is not necessary to understand the lever system in the legs of a cheetah, in order to make an automobile with wheels that goes very fast." They aren't forecasting change overnight, but are forecasting that when (and in their view it is when, not if) change comes, it will be fundamental: "We regard the professions as likely to last longer in their current form than most other occupations...we cannot emphasize strongly enough that we are not predicting that the professions will disappear over the next few years. We are looking decades ahead...[but] we foresee that, in the end, the traditional professions will be dismantled" The several different models they envisage include: - networked experts - para-professionals - knowledge engineering - communities of experience - embedded knowledge - machine-generated expertise Overall the authors regard this future not as a negative, but as a good think, spreading the practical expertise currently generated by the professions (in law, tax, audit, actuarial work, education etc) much more freely. They do raise some concerns of their own e.g. that "somehow, in some circumstances, it feels inappropriate, or wrong, to abnegate responsibility and pass it along to a machine, no matter how high-performing.". But they argue such cases are very rare and represent only a fraction of what we would regard today as professional work. The other, tangentially related, issue which they touch on briefly, but I suspect not enough, is the strong preference humans still seem to have for experts over algorithms. A recent Wharton paper covered this [my own reference, not referenced in the book]: https://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/m... "Research shows that evidence-based algorithms more accurately predict the future than do human forecasters. Yet when forecasters are deciding whether to use a human forecaster or a statistical algorithm, they often choose the human forecaster. This phenomenon, which we call algorithm aversion, is costly, and it is important to understand its causes. We show that people are especially averse to algorithmic forecasters after seeing them perform, even when they see them outperform a human forecaster. This is because people more quickly lose confidence in algorithmic than human forecasters after seeing them make the same mistake. In 5 studies, participants either saw an algorithm make forecasts, a human make forecasts, both, or neither. They then decided whether to tie their incentives to the future predictions of the algorithm or the human. Participants who saw the algorithm perform were less confident in it, and less likely to choose it over an inferior human forecaster. This was true even among those who saw the algorithm outperform the human." Overall a thought provoking book.

  3. 4 out of 5

    Brian Clegg

    We're used to hearing how technology is going to replace the jobs of those doing mechanistic jobs - but this book takes on the impact that technology will have on the professions. I've only given the book three stars as it feels rather too much like a textbook (admittedly a well-written textbook), it's fairly repetitious and there's limited coverage of the science and technology behind the move. However this doesn't detract from the fascinating aspects of the book. One of these is simply addressi We're used to hearing how technology is going to replace the jobs of those doing mechanistic jobs - but this book takes on the impact that technology will have on the professions. I've only given the book three stars as it feels rather too much like a textbook (admittedly a well-written textbook), it's fairly repetitious and there's limited coverage of the science and technology behind the move. However this doesn't detract from the fascinating aspects of the book. One of these is simply addressing the professions at all. According to the authors there's a fair amount of literature on this - but it's stuff us ordinary mortals are unlikely to have seen. A starting point is deciding just what the professions are. The book primarily focuses on the traditional professions such as medicine, accountancy, the law, journalism and religion - though they admit that the concept, essentially one where it is necessary to have specialist knowledge and there is often regulation and/or certification, is now a lot wider. (In practice, though religion gets passing mentions, it's largely sidelined, which is probably sensible in the context.) The authors' assertion is that these roles can be subject to a kind of production line breakdown of tasks, some parts of which can easily be accommodated by information technology or less qualified individuals. The argument is that not only will this reduce costs where, for example, companies are reluctant to continue paying through the nose for corporate law (bye bye Suits), it also has the potential to open up these services to a much wider clientele that is presently largely excluded or at least has significantly reduced access. Of course there are plenty of objections (often from those involved in the professions) which the authors largely succeed in knocking out of the way. For example they point out that this move will probably reduce the earnings of many professionals - but as they observe, these roles are not there for the benefit of the professionals but for their clients. Inevitably there is quite a lot of futurology style guesswork here. The authors point out they will often be wrong in detail - but argue convincingly that the professions are going to go through a major upheaval in the next generation. It's amusing, given the authors' assertion that 'in the professions, knowledge resides in the heads of professionals, in books...', using this as a mark of how out of step the professions are in the internet age... that I should have been reading this in a book, rather than, say, a blog post or electronic magazine article. However this still remains a title of interest to anyone either involved in a profession (traditional or more modern) or interested in the future of the middle class.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Richard Thompson

    I really wanted to like this book, but I found it disappointing. Like too many popular non-fiction books, it takes 350 pages to express an interesting idea that could have been fully developed in 35 pages. I was intrigued by the basic premise that as computers become faster and faster and more and more complex and as networks become ever more connected, we will get to a place in the not too distant future where complex tasks that are performed today by highly paid professionals will be done by m I really wanted to like this book, but I found it disappointing. Like too many popular non-fiction books, it takes 350 pages to express an interesting idea that could have been fully developed in 35 pages. I was intrigued by the basic premise that as computers become faster and faster and more and more complex and as networks become ever more connected, we will get to a place in the not too distant future where complex tasks that are performed today by highly paid professionals will be done by machines and semi-skilled lower paid paraprofessionals. I think that this is probably right, although my particular profession of entertainment law is likely to lag behind the trend by a few years, and I will be long retired by the time my job is obsolete. The problem with the book is that the author never really develops the idea in an interesting or insightful way. He tells us a lot of things that we already know and speaks of the future in vague generalities. I have always enjoyed being on the bleeding edge in my job, working in new areas and finding new ways to do my job better, even when it has not made me more money, so I was hoping that this book would give me some pointers as to how move the business to next level. Unfortunately it didn't, so I'll have to look to some other source for inspiration.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Shawn Stone

    As a teacher it’s frustrating that we’re forced to prepare kids primarily with the skills needed for jobs that simply won’t exist in the future. With the rise of technology we are witnessing the incremental dismantling of the professions as we know them along with the redundancy of their respective skillsets. The roles played by doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others will as Susskind argues, will look substantially different in the years to c As a teacher it’s frustrating that we’re forced to prepare kids primarily with the skills needed for jobs that simply won’t exist in the future. With the rise of technology we are witnessing the incremental dismantling of the professions as we know them along with the redundancy of their respective skillsets. The roles played by doctors, teachers, accountants, architects, the clergy, consultants, lawyers, and many others will as Susskind argues, will look substantially different in the years to come, if they are to exist at all. I read this along with Ross’ excellent, “Industries of the Future” to get a more specific overview of the transformative effect technology will have on how particular fields will change in the coming years. Most of the conclusions seem intuitive given the evolving trends and pace of industrial innovations, yet most people will be wholly unprepared and most definitely resistant to the unprecedented upheaval the eventual displacement automation will bring. You’ll need to either race to keep ahead, work alongside, or be made redundant in the Darwinist sense of the word if you fail to keep abreast of the inevitable sea-change that’s to come. If you think that you currently provide a level of “human-touch” that’s immune to replacement by machines, or believe that there will be an offshoot of jobs created by these new technologies, then you need to read this book to understand why this most definitely WON’T be the case. “Termination” might not come in the physical sense via a cybernetic organism wearing dark shades and riding a Harley, but will almost definitely happen via an automated email from an automated/outsourced HR department. “Professions” is a very dry and repetitive read in parts with its academic and textbook-like tone. However, its underlying thesis is timely and prescient; maybe preparing kids for the uncertainty of life in an era of technological unemployment and a near jobless future will require the (re)teaching of basic hunter and gatherer survival skills? Let’s hope the machines treat us nicely.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Marks54

    The two authors of this book are a father-son combination. Richard Susskind is a technology scholar and Daniel, his son, is an economist. Their prior work has concerned the influence of technological innovation on the legal profession. The current book, published in 2015 (and due to be updated later this year) expands their insights gained from the legal profession to a broader look at the impact of technology on “the professions” more broadly. To understand the analytic path, note that while the The two authors of this book are a father-son combination. Richard Susskind is a technology scholar and Daniel, his son, is an economist. Their prior work has concerned the influence of technological innovation on the legal profession. The current book, published in 2015 (and due to be updated later this year) expands their insights gained from the legal profession to a broader look at the impact of technology on “the professions” more broadly. To understand the analytic path, note that while there is a huge research literature in many disciplines on the professions, there is also a potential for some confusion, since that someone is a “professional” is a different statement from calling some set of firms and individuals and government agencies as related to a particular “profession”. Other observers of this book have made a similar point. The focus of the book is largely, I think, on professions rather than professionals, although there are discussions of both. An additional point to note is that all the work in a profession (or performed by a professional) is not the same. Rather, it is useful to distinguish between particular jobs and the different tasks that comprise them and that in summary constitute what professionals do. So if we are analyzing the effects of technological change on professions and professionals, then one should recognize that different tasks will be affected in different ways to to different degrees by new technology. Then, the problem becomes who should do what, how should the technologically changed tasks be reorganized, and who should be engaged to perform which tasks. This opens the ways for new professions, paraprofessionals, various “extender” jobs, and other sorts of assistants. In addition, technology may make it possible for consumers to perform tasks that had previously been performed by professionals in the old days. So what is the future of the professions? It is complex. In the short term, or longer, professions are likely to remain, but more people will be able to get more access to professional services. The advent of new technology will likely be an improvement for consumers and even for the professionals who remain. What else will change? It is hard to summarize but the picture presented makes sense and is even plausible given what we already know about how technology can change people’s lives. I expected more from the book. If one has kept pace with the popular literature (and some scholarly literature on the professions) there is not much new here, but it is useful to have it all assembled with an editorial direction. The tone and direction errs in the direction of technological optimism with a bit of “gee whiz” from time to time. But the authors are on target and know what they are doing. I grew up in a world where much extra money could be earned as a paralegal in large prestigious firms and that world has completely changed. Now the prospect of attending law school is far from a sure bet for future prosperity. The developments tracked in other professions (consulting and auditing, for example) seem reasonably up to date, although I did not see many lots of insights. The authors are aware of the prospects of “big data” and related developments. The book is longer than it needs to be. Little sub-arguments are thrown in whether or not they have been already covered and one gets the sense of too much repetition. Again, the book is being updated and I am glad the authors are doing that. I hope the new expanded version is even better.

  7. 4 out of 5

    Al

    This is a very thorough investigation into the state of technology and innovation, as they relate to the professions, and to their likely effects in the future. One of the authors has spent years working on the legal profession, but the book ranges widely across all the professions. Wisely, the authors shy away from specific predictions and time frames, but they strongly believe that the day of the "professional" as a fully knowledgeable and protected expert is drawing to a close, and fairly qu This is a very thorough investigation into the state of technology and innovation, as they relate to the professions, and to their likely effects in the future. One of the authors has spent years working on the legal profession, but the book ranges widely across all the professions. Wisely, the authors shy away from specific predictions and time frames, but they strongly believe that the day of the "professional" as a fully knowledgeable and protected expert is drawing to a close, and fairly quickly. Still, they are optimistic that the technology-led evolution of professional work can, and should, lead not to fewer jobs, but simply different kinds of jobs within the different professions' spheres of knowledge. At least one other author (Martin Ford, in The Rise of the Robots) is less sanguine, foreseeing complete elimination of various classes of jobs without replacement. With the unbelievable continuing escalation in computer speed and power, the real answer to the question of who is right may come sooner than we think. If I were reading only one of these books, I would choose The Rise of the Robots", although for a reader particularly interested in the professions, TFOTP is superior. In fact, for a practicing professional in today's world, concerned about the future, I would say it's must reading.

  8. 5 out of 5

    Tony Garnett

    The one thing you shouldn't predict, the old joke goes, is the future. So this is just one attempt. But it's in line with others. Even though the transformations are seismic in profession after profession, people I know say it can't happen to them. It probably already is. What technology did to the skilled and unskilled worker, is now eating up and transforming the middle class professional. With unpredctable social and economic and political consequences. This is worth reading and thinking about The one thing you shouldn't predict, the old joke goes, is the future. So this is just one attempt. But it's in line with others. Even though the transformations are seismic in profession after profession, people I know say it can't happen to them. It probably already is. What technology did to the skilled and unskilled worker, is now eating up and transforming the middle class professional. With unpredctable social and economic and political consequences. This is worth reading and thinking about

  9. 4 out of 5

    Tara Brabazon

    This is strong, fascinating and provocative book. Part polemic, part techno-celebration, this book is valuable for scholars of the internet and scholars of the professions. Aligning globalization and disintermediation, Richard and Daniel Susskind probe a post-professions future, a world where expertise is distributed widely and digitally. The weakness of this monograph is that the internet is configured as a panacea, medication, boon and benefit. The strength is that it offers provocations to thin This is strong, fascinating and provocative book. Part polemic, part techno-celebration, this book is valuable for scholars of the internet and scholars of the professions. Aligning globalization and disintermediation, Richard and Daniel Susskind probe a post-professions future, a world where expertise is distributed widely and digitally. The weakness of this monograph is that the internet is configured as a panacea, medication, boon and benefit. The strength is that it offers provocations to think about knowledge, teaching and learning in new ways.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Boni Aditya

    This book definitely tops the list of the most boring books that I have read in my life. This is a text book. This isn't a book for the casual reader. This is the kind of book that would be used in a classroom, where students would be expected to remember the answer to the question. "What are the seven different ways in which Professions can become extinct in the future, state with appropriate examples" (for seven marks) Or "Write the framework that the authors have developed to transition societi This book definitely tops the list of the most boring books that I have read in my life. This is a text book. This isn't a book for the casual reader. This is the kind of book that would be used in a classroom, where students would be expected to remember the answer to the question. "What are the seven different ways in which Professions can become extinct in the future, state with appropriate examples" (for seven marks) Or "Write the framework that the authors have developed to transition societies and industry through the four phases of phasing out professional work" (for five marks) The book is so boring that it helped me drowse off multiple times! The book is a 100% true technically, but these authors restrict themselves to traditional professions, i.e. auditors, consultants, teachers, drivers, tax consultants, chartered accountants etc... They carefully avoid talking about future professions, they say that they generate generic principles that can be applied to any industry to determine which parts of their careers are going through different phases as cited in the book. They also talk about industries that generate new professions, during the process, but don't talk about them. They threw a wet blanket on my enthusiasm to find an answer to the question "What are people going to do in the future? Will they be flying search drones in remote valleys of earth or other space colonies?" "Will they be writing AI code that searches deep space to find livable colonies or write code that could write code for itself?" Instead the authors were hell bent on throwing definitions at every chance they got. They developed frameworks to capture the common sense knowledge that anybody reading everyday news could relate to as obvious rational conclusions. I was extremely disappointed at the size of the book, the book can be be cut in half or one third without losing much of the content. The book is extremely repetitive, The authors repeat the AI fallacy in full swing, at six different places in various chapters. There many such concepts repeated time and again. The book provides a framework or a dictionary/reference book to use in case you want to explicitly map the evolution of a specific profession and its tasks towards automation and to eventual overhaul. This book does not add huge value except - Knowledge Management and Pompous Word Play. The authors have done thorough research but they have not really vetted their work. Or passed it through an editor who would have done it for them. The work lacks any motivation to keep the user engaged. The work is also extremely derivative i.e. they have extracted their theories from hundreds of other books. I would not call that laziness, but I would call it extremely good curation. The book seems to be a cumulation of a few hundred published papers in various scientific magazines, discussion about morality, ethics at some points. The book definitely was a buzz kill. Here is a list of other Books that are Mentioned in this Work: System of Professions Patient will see you now Learning with big data We are all Journalists now The Firm Future of Employment GateKeepers Big Data Makers - The New Industrial Age Managing the professional service firm Second Machine Age Orality and Literacy The Information: A history, a theory, a flood How to create a mind The Singularity is Near In the age of smart machine The New Division of Labour Affective Computing The Penguin and the Levithan Dove Weidman's How The Checklist Manifesto Future of Ideas The Future of Law The End of Lawyers What Money Can't Buy Computer Power and Human Reasoning Wealth of Nations Protestant Ethic and the spirit of Capitalism Super Intelligence Second Machine Age The Zero Marginal Cost Society A Theory of Justice

  11. 4 out of 5

    Sainath Sunil

    That technology will transform the way we think, we work and we see the world is a foregone conclusion. what is however of relevance is the role we will play in it, will we as is said, focus on higher order thinking and enjoy leisure while machines handle the redundant tasks or will we become inconsequential and our skills obsolete as machines become sharper and intuitive. Globally this is the discussion that is slowly captivating the mindspace of people and policy makers alike. In a world where That technology will transform the way we think, we work and we see the world is a foregone conclusion. what is however of relevance is the role we will play in it, will we as is said, focus on higher order thinking and enjoy leisure while machines handle the redundant tasks or will we become inconsequential and our skills obsolete as machines become sharper and intuitive. Globally this is the discussion that is slowly captivating the mindspace of people and policy makers alike. In a world where the computing powers of machines is increasing at an exponential pace machines are already smarter than most of us, as machines begin developing cognitive skills and start pushing through the turing test limit, the obsolescence of humans is becoming a reality which is not too far off. How we skill up, how we prepare and what we do to equip the current and prospective generations is going to be the absolute key here. Jobs are going to be taken over by machines and new ones will be created but will they be enough for the employable population then or will it be more of what we already have now in terms of jobless growth only to be called as technology induced unemployment. we live in times of great disruptions with ominous repercussions for the future. Both omission and commission of technology will be major steps to ponder over, as none is without risk.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Gumble's Yard

    Book by two authors who have regularly written on the development of the legal profession – now turning their attention to all professions. The book is engagingly (almost conversationally) written – often whole sections dive into academic theory, but these are explicitly signposted, the conclusions set out in advance and in summary and the reader openly invited to skip them if not interested in the details. The book begins with a review of the history of the professions – which crucially the auth Book by two authors who have regularly written on the development of the legal profession – now turning their attention to all professions. The book is engagingly (almost conversationally) written – often whole sections dive into academic theory, but these are explicitly signposted, the conclusions set out in advance and in summary and the reader openly invited to skip them if not interested in the details. The book begins with a review of the history of the professions – which crucially the authors link to a world of printed text and an explosion of knowledge which no human could in such a world expect to master across and all areas. This introduction culminates in what it calls the grand bargain, that In acknowledgement of and in return or their expertise, experience and judgement, which they are expected to apply in delivering affordable, accessible, up to date, reassuring and reliable services, and on the understanding that they will curate and updated their knowledge and methods, train their members, set and enforce standards for the quality of their work, and that they will only admit appropriately qualified individuals into their ranks, and that they will always act honestly in good faith, putting the interests of clients ahead of their own; society places its trust in the professions by granting them exclusivity over a wide range of socially significant services and activities, by paying them a fair wage, by conferring upon them independence, autonomy, rights of self-determination, and by according them respect and status. They then set out what they see as areas where the grand bargain is breaking down, the two most crucial of which are that: most people and organisations can no longer afford the services of first rate professionals; that the bargain rests on (and in fact is entirely based around) increasingly antiquated techniques for creating and sharing knowledge. They then consider the role of technology and artificial intelligence and argue that people mis-under estimate this role in two key but different ways: technological myopia (for example not seeing the role that empathy could play in future AI systems) and the AI fallacy (that the only way to develop systems is to replicate the thinking process of human specialists – they quote a number of times by contrast Deep Blue and the brute force approach it applied successfully to defeat human chess experts, and argue that similar brute force techniques using Big Data techniques can replace and outperform professional expertise and judgement). They then set out examples across various professions of where they believe their revolution is already occurring (crowd sourcing, the use of online systems, access to online videos, big data and data mining techniques, expert systems like IBM’s Watson). This is followed by an excellent section summarising patterns which seem to apply across the professions: the move away from bespoke services, bypassed gatekeepers, the more-for-less procurement challenge, technological transformation (automation and the different concept of innovation) emerging skills (new communication techniques, data mastery, use of technology, diversification), the reconfiguration of work (routinization, disintermediation, decomposition), new labour models (offshoring/arbitrage, para-professionals, flexible self-employment), more options for recipients (online selection and self-help plus open source collaboration), new preoccupations of professional firms (liberalisation, globalisation, specialisation, new business models, fewer partnerships and consolidation) and an overall trend of demystification. The second section of the book is perhaps the least enjoyable (and best read as reference) – setting out two key sets of background theories on how information/technology and the production/distribution of knowledge have, are and will evolve. The key part of these sections is their conclusion: that technological and economic trends mean that in the full-fledged technology based Internet future, many if not most of the tasks which are currently the exclusive realm of professionals will instead be performed by increasingly capable machines autonomously or by equipping non-specialist users (often the reciepents). They then consider the consequences of and objections to this thesis – many of these they reject based on a strong view that the professions have increasingly let down their side of the grand bargain and that technology is eroding the very base on which it was struck. Two interesting areas are: their consideration of how a pipeline of future experts will be maintained (they suggest three ideas: a return to apprenticeship, parallel checking of the work of the automated systems and e-learning); what future skills may replace those of professionals (they argue for a range of roles: craftspeople – the real remaining experts, assistants and para-professionals, empathizers to deliver difficult advise (they argue that few existing professionals have great skills here), R&D workers, knowledge engineers, process analysts, moderators (of on line communities/Wikis), designers, system providers, data scientists, system engineers. Overall an extremely thought provoking book.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Alix

    Susskind and Susskind make some interesting projections about the way digitization will reorganize knowledge. As they say, we're a while away from their end state. Watching how new companies and new professionals begin to organize their work may give some indication of whether Susskind and Susskind have the right idea. Susskind and Susskind make some interesting projections about the way digitization will reorganize knowledge. As they say, we're a while away from their end state. Watching how new companies and new professionals begin to organize their work may give some indication of whether Susskind and Susskind have the right idea.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Tim Hughes

    Father and son team, write an extremely well researched book where they try and look into the future. In doing this they explain how we got where we are today, the objections people have to change and why and then based on the patterns we see around us in Technology, Social Media, Artificial Intelligence etc. These are all disruptors to the current profession status quo. Now is the time to stop and think and appraise your current position or get left behind.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Jim Angstadt

    The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind The authors, a father and son team, analyze the fields of law, education, accounting, medicine, architecture, and others, to assess how technology has effected their practice, and how that practice, and the tasks within it, may and will change in the next few decades. Their approach is analytical, understandable, supportable; their results may frighten some and motivate others. T The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind The authors, a father and son team, analyze the fields of law, education, accounting, medicine, architecture, and others, to assess how technology has effected their practice, and how that practice, and the tasks within it, may and will change in the next few decades. Their approach is analytical, understandable, supportable; their results may frighten some and motivate others. The first third of the book gives one an understanding of legal, ethical, and common needs that lead to what we might call professional practice. Some of the key identifiers of a profession include specialized knowledge, advice to those less knowledgeable, continuing education, a high standard of ethics, and a value to society in general. The authors give examples of how those professions changes over time, and in recent years, how those changes have accelerated. The next third of this book, titled "Theory", discusses the nature of information, technology, and the means of distributing that information. This is very helpful in assessing trends and the increasing tempo of technology progress. It also helps one understand some of the pressures on the professions to improve their delivery, with respect to cost and breadth. For example, many people cannot afford a lawyer; if they could, then maybe they would be better off, and so would society in general. The final third of the book deals with the implications of the current trends. We see that parts of these professions can be automated. Once some of the easy pickings are done, then artificial intelligence is better able to pick off more. In the long run, this iteration will/can continue to reduce the role of the professional. For example, the lawyer may not need to personally explain all the details to the client. That may be done by a combination of technology and/or skilled, empathetic briefers/guides. Is this a fearful future? Yes, for many who think of a job-for-life future. For others, perhaps those with a continual interest in learning and a need for variety, the years ahead may be exciting and rewarding. Learning and adaptability seem more important than ever.

  16. 4 out of 5

    Mary Hartshorn

    The Future of Professions really makes you look at how social classes have been changing throughout history, and how professionals now are looked upon compared to professionals before. It also points out how where you go to school, who you know, how good you are can impact professionals, past, present and future with the elitist mentality. This is an interesting book that really takes a look at the future of a list of professions. I found this intriguing especially since there has been some ch The Future of Professions really makes you look at how social classes have been changing throughout history, and how professionals now are looked upon compared to professionals before. It also points out how where you go to school, who you know, how good you are can impact professionals, past, present and future with the elitist mentality. This is an interesting book that really takes a look at the future of a list of professions. I found this intriguing especially since there has been some changes recently impacting jobs like a cashier at McDonald's. Not long after the minimum wage increased to $15, kiosks have been ordered and installed in some areas across the U.S. to replace the cashiers. This is not one of the top careers, but if this can happen here, what other jobs can be replaced by a machine in the future? A kiosk is still a pretty simple machine and will only improve. We are surrounded by smart technology everywhere we go, and it just keeps getting smarter. Daniel and Richard explain the concept of the grand bargain and how the common people have given over permission and authority to ‘professionals’. The authors explain that this bargain has effectively given the keys to a number of professionals who make a lot of money from society because we are entirely dependent upon them for their knowledge, experience and expertise. They go on to discuss seven different models to make practical expertise available in society. One is the traditional model currently being used, while the others are future possibilities dependent upon technological advances. The implications in this book are a little scary to think about, especially how any changes might impact my family.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Nilesh

    The book begets an important philosophical question: why does one "analyze"? Let's say events are what they are. If an observer meticulously divides those otherwise holistic occurrences into parts, creates categories, provides tags and logically verbalises the recreation to the same events with the same known consequences, is there any value in the exercise despite the novelty of the process? Susskind explains something we all experience every day in the new world without knowing the theoretical The book begets an important philosophical question: why does one "analyze"? Let's say events are what they are. If an observer meticulously divides those otherwise holistic occurrences into parts, creates categories, provides tags and logically verbalises the recreation to the same events with the same known consequences, is there any value in the exercise despite the novelty of the process? Susskind explains something we all experience every day in the new world without knowing the theoretical stratifications. There are numerous discussions on how technology is changing the way professionals work and also some relatively straightforward forecasts of where they are headed, but none of this is likely to be radically new to most people. There are many insights if one ponders over the theoretical framework created but all yielding to more theories and constructs without any changed conclusions or even interpretations of the reality. In the end, the readers who enjoy theory are likely to enjoy this extremely coherent, structured, well laid-out and detailed work. The book is unlikely to evoke similar responses from anyone looking for new data-points or radical prognosis.

  18. 4 out of 5

    Mark Steed

    Richard and Daniel Susskind's The Future of the Professions challenges the view that white collar jobs will be immune from the impact of technological advances into the workplace. Indeed, the authors go so far as to detail the road map 'how technology will transform the work of human experts': 'In the long run, increasingly capable machines will transform the work of professionals giving rise to new ways of sharing practical expertise in society' (p.303) with a consequence that 'Decades from now, t Richard and Daniel Susskind's The Future of the Professions challenges the view that white collar jobs will be immune from the impact of technological advances into the workplace. Indeed, the authors go so far as to detail the road map 'how technology will transform the work of human experts': 'In the long run, increasingly capable machines will transform the work of professionals giving rise to new ways of sharing practical expertise in society' (p.303) with a consequence that 'Decades from now, today's professions will play a much less prominent role in society.' (p.271) They argue that reform of the professions is not only inevitable, but that it is long overdue. The role of the professions - the Grand Bargain At the heart of Susskind and Susskind's argument is a particular understanding of the relationship between society and the professions. 'The professions are responsible for many of the most important functions and services in society' and their fundamental role ‘is to provide access to knowledge and experience that non specialists lack’ (p.268). Society affords the professions protection and status in return for providing these services fairly in an arrangement which they call 'the grand bargain': 'In acknowledgement of and in return for their expertise, experience, and judgement, which they are expected to apply in delivering affordable, accessible, up-to-date, reassuring, and reliable services . . . we (society) place our trust in the professions in granting them exclusivity over a wide range of socially significant services and activities, by paying them a fair wage, by conferring upon them independence, autonomy, rights of self-determination, and by according them respect and status.' (p.23) Thus the purpose of the professions is to provide solutions to issues which individuals within society commonly face: ill-health, disputes, lack of education, the need for news and navigating the tax system. The authors believe that the professions are ripe for reform and should lose their privileged status because they have broken this bargain, in that they do not provide these services that are either 'affordable' or 'accessible': 'levels of access and affordability to the practical expertise that the professions provide fall short of acceptable. The combination of these two reasons - the importance of what they provide, and the current inadequacy of the provision - overwhelms the case to protect the craft.' (p.247 - also p.269) Automation and Transformation of the Professions The authors outline how automation is likely to come to the professions by examining some of the practices that have been adopted by those in the vanguard of change: Education Online learning - Khan Academy etc. Flipped Blended Learning Learning Analytics Law Document Assembly Systems (e.g. ContractExpress) which can generate high quality documents after interactive consultations with users. Online Dispute Resolution (e.g. Modria which is behind eBay and PayPal's resolution service) Tax and Audit Online computerised tax preparation software (e.g. TurboTax in the US) Online Accounting software (e.g. Quickbooks) Computer-Assisted Audit Techniques (e.g. PwC's system, Aura) Medicine 'Telemedicine' using video links to make diagnoses or to aid with operations from a distance; Robots assisting surgeons to conduct delicate operations with greater dexterity than is possible by a human; the rise of online medical platforms and 'GP intelligent monitoring', 'remote monitoring' by smart devices and apps; Decomposition, Process Analysts, Para-professionals and Delegation One of the most important observations that Susskind and Susskind make is that when we are talking about the future of the professions, we need to move on from seeing the machine v human debate in binary terms. They are not talking about a robot replacing a lawyer/teacher/doctor in the way that a robot might replace a human worker on the production line of a car manufacturing plant. However when we 'decompose' or break down what lawyers/teachers/doctors do into tasks, we can see there there is scope for some of these to replaced with automated systems - or indeed by lesser qualified human beings. We argue that professional work should be decomposed, that is broken down into constituent ‘tasks’ – identifiable, distinct, and separate modules of work that make it up. Once decomposed, the challenge then is to identify the most efficient way of executing each type of task, constituent with the quality of work needed, the level of human interaction required, and the ease with which the decomposed tasks can be managed alongside one another and pulled together into a coherent offering. (p.212) Leading on from this, the authors argue that one of the key roles for professional organisations in the future is that of the 'process analyst' whose role is 'to identify the level of person best suited for the range of decomposed tasks (p.124). On analysis, it is frequently becoming apparent in various disciplines that para-professional who are sufficiently trained, knowledgeable, and equipped can undertake tasks that were previously taken on by senior professionals. (p.124-5) The delegation to para-professionals may lead to replacement by automated systems: The features of tasks in the workplace that make them amenable to delegation and para-professionalization - that they are well bounded and can, in part, be captured in standard processes - are precisely those features that render them strong candidates in due course for the application of technology (both automation and innovation). (p.125) Decomposition and Para-professionalism in Schools? This all begs the question of whether or not teaching can be decomposed and the tasks either delegated to a 'Para-Teacher' or performed by the application of technology.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Rhonda

    As a "professional" who charges for my time by the hour and is involved in my professional association, I was really drawn to the title and premise of this book. But unfortunately I didn't get to the end. As other reviewers have noted, it is too long and repetitive, and the key ideas are not expressed clearly and succinctly. It needed a ruthless editor. A self-help business book for worried professionals may have been a more useful format, rather than the extended PhD thesis academic tome. But I As a "professional" who charges for my time by the hour and is involved in my professional association, I was really drawn to the title and premise of this book. But unfortunately I didn't get to the end. As other reviewers have noted, it is too long and repetitive, and the key ideas are not expressed clearly and succinctly. It needed a ruthless editor. A self-help business book for worried professionals may have been a more useful format, rather than the extended PhD thesis academic tome. But I will keep thinking about the ideas in the book, particularly acquisition of knowledge, access to knowledge, and the role of experience and judgement.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Pablo Silva

    This is one of the most dense and difficult (in some parts boring) but clarifying book I've ever read. I am not gonna have spoilers here, but if you want to open your mind about the professions in all directions, including in the future, then this book is for you. This book is almost an PhD thesis (if it is not!) and because of that everything is very very well grounded, what make some parts very extensive and prolix. Definitely is need much patient to read some parts of it but then comes moment This is one of the most dense and difficult (in some parts boring) but clarifying book I've ever read. I am not gonna have spoilers here, but if you want to open your mind about the professions in all directions, including in the future, then this book is for you. This book is almost an PhD thesis (if it is not!) and because of that everything is very very well grounded, what make some parts very extensive and prolix. Definitely is need much patient to read some parts of it but then comes moments when you need to read everything because make too much sense and you are not going to want to stop.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Roberto Gallardo

    I think the message this book conveys is important: increasingly capable machines will disrupt the professions leading to "technological unemployment". Authors suggest a future where knowledge and expertise, now exclusive to professionals, can be liberated and maintained by the commons, relying heavily on technology. Though I understand the authors were trying to emphasize their point, at times it is very repetitive. The model of how professions evolve also seemed a bit shallow, but interesting I think the message this book conveys is important: increasingly capable machines will disrupt the professions leading to "technological unemployment". Authors suggest a future where knowledge and expertise, now exclusive to professionals, can be liberated and maintained by the commons, relying heavily on technology. Though I understand the authors were trying to emphasize their point, at times it is very repetitive. The model of how professions evolve also seemed a bit shallow, but interesting nonetheless.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Tom Hood

    The last chapter title says it all, 'After the Professions' This is a must read for any professional and covers the impact of exponential and transformative technologies on the future, or lack thereof, of professions. Imagine a world without professions? The authors present some interesting perspectives into some possible futures with well-researched trends and implications. We have been tracking these changes in and on the accounting profession for awhile. From new skills to working with machine The last chapter title says it all, 'After the Professions' This is a must read for any professional and covers the impact of exponential and transformative technologies on the future, or lack thereof, of professions. Imagine a world without professions? The authors present some interesting perspectives into some possible futures with well-researched trends and implications. We have been tracking these changes in and on the accounting profession for awhile. From new skills to working with machines, not against them to innovation as a must, this book will make you think.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Tim

    Well researched, but boring... As another reviewer stated - it could have been MUCH shorter. Something more along the line of a Harvard Business Review article would have been better. As it is it turns into a scanning exercise. Scan, see something of interest, pause and read. Begin scanning again. I hate to even admit that but there are long stretches that held no interest to me and even in the ones that did it was still too dry and too long. I was expecting more but the final insights are too f Well researched, but boring... As another reviewer stated - it could have been MUCH shorter. Something more along the line of a Harvard Business Review article would have been better. As it is it turns into a scanning exercise. Scan, see something of interest, pause and read. Begin scanning again. I hate to even admit that but there are long stretches that held no interest to me and even in the ones that did it was still too dry and too long. I was expecting more but the final insights are too few and the 'hook' or 'engagement' of the writing... nonexistent.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Alex Devero

    Society is on the brink of a major change when it comes to the concept of professionalism. Thanks to technology, expert knowledge, now digitized and disseminated online, is far more readily available to the layperson. That doesn’t render professionals obsolete, it just means their roles are changing. Professional expertise will always be important, as today’s mass of knowledge cannot be mastered by a single individual alone; technology is the tool that will help us all get ahead.

  25. 5 out of 5

    PeterBlackCoach

    We are already seeing all the professions, once protected by regulation, geographic boundaries and high barriers to entry, being significantly disrupted by globalisation, technology and cost conscious clients. This book suggests this pace of decline and threat will only accelerate as the Fourth Industrial Revolution takes off. Any professional will find this book somewhat disruptive and challenging - as they should!

  26. 4 out of 5

    Tom Jarmyn

    Interesting proposition that technology is fundamentally changing the professions. However, the analysis of any one change or the impact upon one profession is superficial. The book would have done better as a deep dive into the impact upon one profession or professional task type and then used that as an example of how other professions or tasks would be affected.

  27. 4 out of 5

    Kate

    Read this to learn about the AI fallacy and what new cognitive technologies might change about the way we work and the kinds of professions there might be in the near future. A must read for anyone who wants to understand more about IBM's Watson technology. Read this to learn about the AI fallacy and what new cognitive technologies might change about the way we work and the kinds of professions there might be in the near future. A must read for anyone who wants to understand more about IBM's Watson technology.

  28. 5 out of 5

    Willian Molinari

    It is a nice idea and the arguments looks valid and make you think about the future. The book is not easy to follow through and I the first 5 chapters are not so interesting. Most part of the book is an introduction to the main subject that is presented on the last chapters.

  29. 5 out of 5

    Mills College Library

    303.4834 S9646 2015

  30. 5 out of 5

    Jared Quincy

    Not worth the time Wasn't impressed by the quality or originality of the ideas + poor, verbose writing Don't recommend Watch the google talk or read a summary instead Not worth the time Wasn't impressed by the quality or originality of the ideas + poor, verbose writing Don't recommend Watch the google talk or read a summary instead

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