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The Red Record Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynching in the United States

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This book was converted from its physical edition to the digital format by a community of volunteers. You may find it for free on the web. Purchase of the Kindle edition includes wireless delivery.

30 review for The Red Record Tabulated Statistics and Alleged Causes of Lynching in the United States

  1. 4 out of 5

    Bill Kerwin

    After completing her pamphlet Southern Horrors (1992), Ida Bell Wells—aided by the excellent statistics on file at the Chicago Tribune—continued her research on lynching, and, in 1895, published a more extensive work, The Red Record, which constitutes her definitive treatment of the extrajudicial killings of black people in the U.S.A, principally in the Southern states. The Red Record, a classic both of black resistance and of “muckraking” investigative journalism, is an effective combination of After completing her pamphlet Southern Horrors (1992), Ida Bell Wells—aided by the excellent statistics on file at the Chicago Tribune—continued her research on lynching, and, in 1895, published a more extensive work, The Red Record, which constitutes her definitive treatment of the extrajudicial killings of black people in the U.S.A, principally in the Southern states. The Red Record, a classic both of black resistance and of “muckraking” investigative journalism, is an effective combination of: 1) sociological analysis (lynching is mostly about power, a retaliation not for rape but for consensual sex between the races), 2) practical exhortation (black people must fight back with their economic power and protect themselves with firearms when necessary), 2) a wealth of supportive statistics (demonstrating that lynching punishes lesser crimes too, such as burglary, thievery, and barn burning), 3) a vigorous defense against attacks against the earlier Southern Horrors (mostly initiated by Frances Willard of the Women’s Christian Temperance Association), and 4) a series of disturbing, carefully crafted narratives which convey the savagery of lynching in all its horrors. It is these narratives which constitute the beating heart of Miss Wells book. I will end with the conclusion of her account of the lynching of C.J. Miller, at Bardwell, Kentucky, July 7, 1893—on the flimsiest of evidence—for the murder of two young girls, Mary and Ruby Ray. Notice how the narrative echos the Passion of the Christ: Mr. Ray (the girl’s father) standing in for Pilate, the stripping of the garments, the loincloth, the log-chain instead of a cross, the procession through the streets to the place of execution, the faintings and fallings, etc., etc, and the mention of Christianity at the end: At three o'clock the mob rushed to the jail to secure the prisoner. Mr. Ray had changed his mind about the promised burning; he was still in doubt as to the prisoner's guilt. He again addressed the crowd to that effect, urging them not to burn Miller, and the mob heeded him so far, that they compromised on hanging instead of burning, which was agreed to by Mr. Ray. There was a loud yell, and a rush was made for the prisoner. He was stripped naked, his clothing literally torn from his body, and his shirt was tied around his loins. Some one declared the rope was a "white man's death," and a log-chain, nearly a hundred feet in length, weighing over one hundred pounds, was placed round Miller's neck and body, and he was led and dragged through the streets of the village in that condition followed by thousands of people. He fainted from exhaustion several times, but was supported to the platform where they first intended burning him. The chain was hooked around his neck, a man climbed the telegraph pole and the other end of the chain was passed up to him and made fast to the cross-arm. Others brought a long forked stick which Miller was made to straddle. By this means he was raised several feet from the ground and then let fall. The first fall broke his neck, but he was raised in this way and let fall a second time. Numberless shots were fired into the dangling body, for most of that crowd were heavily armed, and had been drinking all day. Miller's body hung thus exposed from three to five o'clock, during which time, several photographs of him as he hung dangling at the end of the chain were taken, and his toes and fingers were cut off. His body was taken down, placed on the platform, the torch applied, and in a few moments there was nothing left of C.J. Miller save a few bones and ashes. Thus perished another of the many victims of Lynch Law, but it is the honest and sober belief of many who witnessed the scene that an innocent man has been barbarously and shockingly put to death in the glare of the nineteenth-century civilization, by those who profess to believe in Christianity, law and order.

  2. 4 out of 5

    Ezra

    The shooter in the recent Charleston massacre reportedly said: "You rape our women, and you're taking over our country." In the aftermath, the mayor claimed to not know much about the treatment of blacks in South Carolina because it was not taught in schools. That prompted people to create a reading list. This was one of the books I noticed from the list. It documents lynchings in the early 1890s. Further, it describes in detail the newspaper reporting about some of the events such as the origina The shooter in the recent Charleston massacre reportedly said: "You rape our women, and you're taking over our country." In the aftermath, the mayor claimed to not know much about the treatment of blacks in South Carolina because it was not taught in schools. That prompted people to create a reading list. This was one of the books I noticed from the list. It documents lynchings in the early 1890s. Further, it describes in detail the newspaper reporting about some of the events such as the original accusation, actions taken prior to, the killing, and actions taken afterwards. (There were too many to document them all.) The simple plea here is for justice. Not retribution or actions taken against those who unjustifiably lynched. But for this country to stop allowing the murder of people either before they are tried or after a court found them innocent. One of the most powerful was a gentleman who was about to be lynched when a foreman told the mob that the person they were about to hang could not have done it because he was with the foreman, they let him go. The flimsiest of evidence would have seen him hung, but an eyewitness of the right skin color was enough to prove guilt or innocence. In some respects I could see Ida B. Wells-Barnett might find the current legal climate where our people are arrested and found guilty at exorbitant rates over our peers who commit the crimes at the same rates disconcerting. But compared to her own time, we do have it better. The first section explains that under slavery, killing one resulted in a many hundred dollar loss. So, one would beat a slave enough to break him, but try to avoid killing him. The first motivation for killing blacks was to prevent race riots, and for some reason the victims of these often surprisingly had no weapons with which to defend themselves. The second motivation was to prevent voting and established control over the Southern states. The third motivation was protecting the virtue of white women. THIS. The Charleston shooter killed three men and six women to protect the virtue of white women. In 120 years we have made little progress. While a teenager I found a death threat letter signed "KKK" saying they would kill my father for dating mother from about 40 years ago. People stare at me when out in public with a pretty fair skinned girl, especially when she hugs or kisses me. But a hundred years ago, my father or myself would have been hung from a tree, shot, and burned for anything like this. A project noted below has a listing for the reason for lynching as "Writing Letters to White Girl." The burning thing was curious to me. So I looked up attitudes on cremation in Christianity. The dot I needed connecting was that when Christ returns, the dead would be re-animated and join him. Burning these people was a deliberate attempt to prevent any possibility of these people joining Christ. So, not only were they killed but they were prevented salvation? So very low. Was it depressing to read this? Yes. Was it worth reading? Yes. The Mary Turner Project has a description of a lynching 20 years after the Red Record. Plus it looks like they are building upon the work of Ida and others.

  3. 5 out of 5

    d.a.v.i.d

    This courageous woman, a journalist and activist, wrote a short piece on the ‘Lynch Law;’ allowing southern white society to circumvent the courtroom and mete out punishment in various uncivil ways to this minority. The Lynch Law, as with all laws, was the flavor of the decade ‘rule’ during this period (1890-1899). It basically justified the killing of many innocent black-skinned people. All allegations held water. So many, too many, innocent black folk were killed, shamelessly. And without due pr This courageous woman, a journalist and activist, wrote a short piece on the ‘Lynch Law;’ allowing southern white society to circumvent the courtroom and mete out punishment in various uncivil ways to this minority. The Lynch Law, as with all laws, was the flavor of the decade ‘rule’ during this period (1890-1899). It basically justified the killing of many innocent black-skinned people. All allegations held water. So many, too many, innocent black folk were killed, shamelessly. And without due process. The methods employed to eliminate blacks during this time included shooting, hanging a person in front of their respective community, or death by a civilian mob of white people with impunity. Really, another disgusting chapter in our history, that remains skewed. And today, are we so far away from the prejudices of yesterday? Animals in the wild behave better than humans do. Another necessary read.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Vaishali

    Contains an interesting listing of U.S. lynchings from 1892 and 1894, as well as details surrounding the more heinous of them. The forward is by Frederick Douglass. The most startling find is that lynchings occurred in most of these cases despite police custody. In other words, local law enforcement always held the accused for questioning... but in each case, a group of rogue men were able to threaten the police and wrestle blacks into their hands. Police brutality didn't enable lynchings; inste Contains an interesting listing of U.S. lynchings from 1892 and 1894, as well as details surrounding the more heinous of them. The forward is by Frederick Douglass. The most startling find is that lynchings occurred in most of these cases despite police custody. In other words, local law enforcement always held the accused for questioning... but in each case, a group of rogue men were able to threaten the police and wrestle blacks into their hands. Police brutality didn't enable lynchings; instead a technologically weak police precinct was constantly under attack by and bent to mob rule. And what vicious, blood-thirsty mobs these were. The accounts here are very similar to the many European historic records of witch hunts. Wells talent as a writer is evident with 4 quotes : "To justify their own barbarism, they assume a chivalry which they do not possess." "Thousands of brave black men went to their graves, exemplifying the one by dying for the other." "Whatever faults and failings other nations may have in their dealings with their own subjects or with other people, no other civilized nation stands condemned before the world with a series of crimes so peculiarly national." “We have associated too long with the white man not to have copied his vices as well as his virtues.” .

  5. 4 out of 5

    Christine

    This is the type of book that really doesn't merit anything less than 5 stars, but you can't say you enjoyed it. Wells book should be read simply for what it tells you and how it educates you. Lynching, it seems, is not being taught much or well in schools. For instance, I have students who have no idea about "Strange Fruit". They know what lynching is, but seem to have an idea that it was a hiccup. They should read Wells book. My teachers made sure we knew about it, looking back this was most li This is the type of book that really doesn't merit anything less than 5 stars, but you can't say you enjoyed it. Wells book should be read simply for what it tells you and how it educates you. Lynching, it seems, is not being taught much or well in schools. For instance, I have students who have no idea about "Strange Fruit". They know what lynching is, but seem to have an idea that it was a hiccup. They should read Wells book. My teachers made sure we knew about it, looking back this was most likely because one of them was a descendent of Sally Hemmings (and Jefferson) and one had grand parents who were murdered in the Holocaust. But even with that education there was much here that I didn't know. For instance, some people were lynched for wife beating. Wife beating. For proposing. Honesty, just read it.

  6. 4 out of 5

    Aaron

    A disturbing detail of lynching and the complete lack of interest by the non-black community in the late 19th century. It is truly frightening that this was somehow acceptable and nearly "the norm" for a considerable length of time. Wells' indignation comes through clearly, however, the statistical evidence of the criminal activity makes for a dry read. A disturbing detail of lynching and the complete lack of interest by the non-black community in the late 19th century. It is truly frightening that this was somehow acceptable and nearly "the norm" for a considerable length of time. Wells' indignation comes through clearly, however, the statistical evidence of the criminal activity makes for a dry read.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Valerie

    I am grateful that I had to read this for a civil rights history class. It was really hard to read, but important. From the book: "The very frequent inquiry made after my lectures by interested friends is 'What can I do to help the cause?' The answer always is: 'Tell the world the facts.'" I am grateful that I had to read this for a civil rights history class. It was really hard to read, but important. From the book: "The very frequent inquiry made after my lectures by interested friends is 'What can I do to help the cause?' The answer always is: 'Tell the world the facts.'"

  8. 4 out of 5

    Lauren Salisbury

    Powerful, powerful, powerful stuff.

  9. 4 out of 5

    Carol Hoyer

    An unbelievable account of the history of lynching due to a man being black regardless if they were innocent. Great statistics. Really infuriates readers.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Diz

    Ida B. Wells documents the horrors of lynchings that occurred in the United States. This was written in the 1890s, so the focus is on lynchings that occurred in that decade. I don't think that many Americans are aware of the scale of the domestic terrorism that occurred in this period. Reading through the list of names of victims (there are so many) and the cities where these lynchings took place (I've been to some of those cities) makes this reading this book a chilling experience. Ida B. Wells documents the horrors of lynchings that occurred in the United States. This was written in the 1890s, so the focus is on lynchings that occurred in that decade. I don't think that many Americans are aware of the scale of the domestic terrorism that occurred in this period. Reading through the list of names of victims (there are so many) and the cities where these lynchings took place (I've been to some of those cities) makes this reading this book a chilling experience.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Janet Cooke

    The stars are for the historical content. This was in the midst of of Ms. Wells crusade to end the Lynching Law during the 1890s, it is largely a log of the murders. The information is pulled from news outlets and some accounts are detailed. She helps to make sense of the history that brings us into the 21st century.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Stacie C

    There are so many aspects of history in the United States that are not openly discussed. The ramifications of an open discussion would lead people to recognize the true horror that is the African American experience in this country. I always find it fascinating that compared to the horrors of the past, Black people should now feel relatively safe, but that isn’t the case for many. Why? Because many of us are very aware of the past, the injustices that occurred and the scars that have been passed There are so many aspects of history in the United States that are not openly discussed. The ramifications of an open discussion would lead people to recognize the true horror that is the African American experience in this country. I always find it fascinating that compared to the horrors of the past, Black people should now feel relatively safe, but that isn’t the case for many. Why? Because many of us are very aware of the past, the injustices that occurred and the scars that have been passed through history because of such violence. Scars that are never given the opportunity to heal. The Red Record was published in 1895 and is an open discussion by Wells of the Lynch Law of the time. Why is it so powerful? Because it lays bare the complete absence of value on the lives of African Americans. Because it proves that an African American could die at the whim of the mob, body flaming on the ground, or swinging from a tree while riddled with bullets. That most of the time law and order did not take place and no one was ever charged with the lynching. No one was ever persecuted. But a life was taken and everyone went on about their lives. Except for the women, children and family members whose loved one was accused and then viciously murdered. Some people don’t want to talk about this part of history. It's easier to imagine that a wrong was made right when slaves were set free and that there was a rough patch in time when the Civil Rights movement was necessary. No one likes to talk about the time in between. I needed to read The Red Record because I needed to see the proof of that time. I have made a choice to confront history head on so I can better confront the position the United States is currently in as a country. It's disgusting that a book written so many years ago is so very relevant to 2017. It provides a bridge of understanding with painstaking reflection. But in a time when people are asking for their lives to matter, it’s easy to look back and see that for a long time they haven’t. The proof is in the history and we still have to keep fighting for change. This book is a necessary read. Especially now when the fight for social justice still rages and lives are still taken. Wells was a voice for justice then and her words still matter now. I give this 5 out of 5 stars.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Qwelian Tanner

    With a forward from Frederick Douglas that reminds me him a champion of justice for black people, Wells-Barnett Cole delivers an important peace of reporting on the causes and history of lynchings in the American South after the rise of Ngros

  14. 5 out of 5

    Sheila M. Clements

    History Why is this history not taught in schools? After all it is part of American History. Very awakening part of history!

  15. 4 out of 5

    Rachel Jackson

    The Red Record was an eye-opening, enraging and disgusting book. It would be impossible to read this book without having a visceral reaction to the horrors of lynching that journalist and activist Ida B. Wells details over the course of just a few years' record. This is a scathing and much-deserved indictment of white people by black people, focusing especially on Christians and officeholders in high positions, condemning their inaction in a society where the mobbing and murdering of innocent bl The Red Record was an eye-opening, enraging and disgusting book. It would be impossible to read this book without having a visceral reaction to the horrors of lynching that journalist and activist Ida B. Wells details over the course of just a few years' record. This is a scathing and much-deserved indictment of white people by black people, focusing especially on Christians and officeholders in high positions, condemning their inaction in a society where the mobbing and murdering of innocent black people is seen as completely normal. Wells narrows down the most common justifications for lynching, usually the defense of womanhood—but only white womanhood—and the fear of some sort of uprising, or the usurpation of black people in local governments, because heaven forbid black people have suffrage and autonomy in a realistic manner. Wells doesn't shy away from describing the horrors of the physical acts of lynching themselves, the violence, the mob mentality, the gruesome, agonizing deaths. But this is necessary—it's necessary now in an age of police brutality and corporate dictatorship turning a blind eye, just as it was necessary more than a century ago for the same reasons. The Red Record was a very difficult book to read for that reason, the fact that the topic was so heavy and I felt so much anger and disgust as a reaction to what Wells wrote. It was an informative, vitally important read. I only wish Wells had broadened her narrative to more systemic and institutional responses to lynching, rather than narrowing it down to some sort of feud between herself and the president of a Christian women's group. Her defense of her own cause was noble and well-said, but it was not the strongest way to end such a strong piece. [Read online here: https://ia600501.us.archive.org/23/it...]

  16. 4 out of 5

    Matt Sautman

    I doubt few modern American readers are unaware of the horrors of lynching. But unless one has read Ida B. Wells's The Red Record or encountered a similar text, e.g. "Without Sanctuary," it is likely that whatever understanding a person has of lynching, that understanding of lynching is far tamer than what was actually the case. Wells theorizes that when slavery ended, the South's investment in the livelihoods of African Americans diminished. Whereas before it was commonplace to subdue the soul I doubt few modern American readers are unaware of the horrors of lynching. But unless one has read Ida B. Wells's The Red Record or encountered a similar text, e.g. "Without Sanctuary," it is likely that whatever understanding a person has of lynching, that understanding of lynching is far tamer than what was actually the case. Wells theorizes that when slavery ended, the South's investment in the livelihoods of African Americans diminished. Whereas before it was commonplace to subdue the soul and docile the body, after the abolition of slavery, for many former plantation owners, overseers, et al., African Americans become a continued target of ire, and since no one could own them, there few sociological forces to preserve their livelihoods. Wells unveils to her readers the allegations for each lynching she investigates, the mob rule behaviors that play a factor in their organization, and the cruel realities that occur throughout the United States at the time of the Record's composition. This is not a book for the faint of heart, but it's a necessary book. On a lighter note, although it is still serious in tone, Wells's verbal sparring with Frances Willard seems to anticipate bell hooks's own criticism of Betty Friedan. Because Willard's views on temperance, I already didn't have the best opinion of her, but Wells doesn't hold anything back as she protects her own reputation from this somewhat racist suffragette who can't differentiate from an attack on lynching from an attack on white American women. Then again I suppose there are plenty of parallels of people who conflate criticism of specific actions committed by some white Americans with a verbal attack that universally lumps all white peoples to have ever existed. Give me Wells over Willard any day.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Duane

    Though Booker T. Washington, WEB Dubois, William Trotter were the leading Black voices for Black aspirations in the early 1900s, it was Ida B. Wells-Barnette who was the voice consistently vilifying & lobbying for the end of lynching & White terrorism against Blacks. In the Red Record, Wells-Barnette investigated lynchings nationwide & set the record straight. She refuted that argument espoused by White supremacist leaders that the mob-led lynchings were necessary to quelch the explosion of rape Though Booker T. Washington, WEB Dubois, William Trotter were the leading Black voices for Black aspirations in the early 1900s, it was Ida B. Wells-Barnette who was the voice consistently vilifying & lobbying for the end of lynching & White terrorism against Blacks. In the Red Record, Wells-Barnette investigated lynchings nationwide & set the record straight. She refuted that argument espoused by White supremacist leaders that the mob-led lynchings were necessary to quelch the explosion of rapes, assaults & murders committed by Black "brutes" against Whites throughout the country. She compiled the facts & presents data to show that most Blacks lynched were for crimes that would never have seen the light of day in a fair courtroom. Insolence, inappropriate comments or looking at White women, quarrelling with Whites, union organizing, disrespect, voting, shirking work were all reasons that Blacks were lynched. The vividness of her descriptions of the brutality of these atrocities made any reasonable person wonder what kind of "civilized" country would tolerate this action against their citizens. This book was a weapon in her war against lynching & helped make the nation &, particularly, the South look barbaric. Like Michelle Alexanders', The New Jim Crow or Carol Anderson's, One Person, No Vote which, respectively, gave activists & policymakers the data they needed to wage war against mass incarceration & voter suppression. Wells-Burnette's Red Record gave them the data to fight lynching. The Red Record is a pivotal work that prodded the southern White supremacists to begin to see mob-led lynchings as an anchor they must relinquish to move their image & economies ahead in the 1900s.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Rendi Hahn

    The Red Record is a slice in time of the terrible history of lynching in the United States, focused on the year 1894. Ida B. Wells-Barnett was an anti-lynching activist who went to white newspaper accounts to gather a list of all documented lynchings during that year. She examines some of the primary "reasons" people were lynched and gives details on several horrific events that even went so far as to burn people alive. This is important context for the hurt and anger so many are feeling now. Th The Red Record is a slice in time of the terrible history of lynching in the United States, focused on the year 1894. Ida B. Wells-Barnett was an anti-lynching activist who went to white newspaper accounts to gather a list of all documented lynchings during that year. She examines some of the primary "reasons" people were lynched and gives details on several horrific events that even went so far as to burn people alive. This is important context for the hurt and anger so many are feeling now. The author also gives a list of "what can I do to help?" at the end of the book that has much in common with what is being suggested now. I marvel at the timelessness of her advice and how far we still have to go as a nation in 2020. I'll be posting my highlights if you want to get a glimpse. A public domain version of this book is available for free in the Kindle store.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Jennifer 黄雷 ✧

    Absolutely essential reading. The Red Record is a face of America that to this day makes her coil away from her own reflection. We cannot afford that luxury. These are accounts of the real, celebratory atmosphere of white Americans gathering with their families and neighbors for the lynchings of Black people. This is how we learn that lynchings were not just nighttime misfortunes perpetrated by few; but they were fanatical, public, festival-like spectacles. What is more horrific than reading tha Absolutely essential reading. The Red Record is a face of America that to this day makes her coil away from her own reflection. We cannot afford that luxury. These are accounts of the real, celebratory atmosphere of white Americans gathering with their families and neighbors for the lynchings of Black people. This is how we learn that lynchings were not just nighttime misfortunes perpetrated by few; but they were fanatical, public, festival-like spectacles. What is more horrific than reading that there was once mass joy like this in the racist ritual of slaughtering Black people? That they got away with it, simply with the passive forgiveness of a history left untaught. Read this. Know this history.

  20. 5 out of 5

    Michael Willis

    A short book and worth the read The Red Record and Other Essays is a collection of writing by Ida B. Wells-Barnett. Wells-Barnett was an African-American activist, journalist, teacher, newspaper editor, a popular public speaker and sociologist. Wells-Barnett was an early civil rights leader and one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

  21. 4 out of 5

    Susan

    Horrifying! This is an accounting of the realities of "Lynch Law" in the South after the freeing of the slaves by President Lincoln via the Emancipation Proclamation. Many innocent people were murdered by mobs. The facts are startling and graphic, truly horrendous! If you want to know what life was like for Negroes in the South in the latter part of the 19th century, then I highly recommend this book. Horrifying! This is an accounting of the realities of "Lynch Law" in the South after the freeing of the slaves by President Lincoln via the Emancipation Proclamation. Many innocent people were murdered by mobs. The facts are startling and graphic, truly horrendous! If you want to know what life was like for Negroes in the South in the latter part of the 19th century, then I highly recommend this book.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Michelle Sharpe

    It’s hard to rate this book due to its horrific subject matter but Ida B Wells should be an author that everyone should be required to read. Her ability to convey such sadness and horror while unflinchingly recounting events of lynchings is both amazing and admirable. It was dangerous in her time to talk about these things and to bring attention to those events. Truly an inspirational woman.

  23. 4 out of 5

    Audrey

    Ida B. Wells was a warrior of the antilynching campaign. Her life was threatened and she was exiled from her home due to her activism. In this pamphlet, she enumerates the lynchings over a specific amount of time, the "reasons" for those lynchings, and the facts that showed the lawlessness practiced by the mobs to be brutally unjust. She has no time for hand holding. Ida B. Wells was a warrior of the antilynching campaign. Her life was threatened and she was exiled from her home due to her activism. In this pamphlet, she enumerates the lynchings over a specific amount of time, the "reasons" for those lynchings, and the facts that showed the lawlessness practiced by the mobs to be brutally unjust. She has no time for hand holding.

  24. 5 out of 5

    Susan Greene

    In The Red Record, Ida B Wells, makes a thoughtful and non-sensational plea that Black-skinned and white-skinned be treated the same when it comes to criminal arrest and punishment. Her facts about Lynch Law reads much like Foxx's Book of Martyrs In The Red Record, Ida B Wells, makes a thoughtful and non-sensational plea that Black-skinned and white-skinned be treated the same when it comes to criminal arrest and punishment. Her facts about Lynch Law reads much like Foxx's Book of Martyrs

  25. 4 out of 5

    Glenda Sparkman

    Mind Boggling The slaves were freed to only enter same harsh treatment.endured in captivity .I didn't know Ms Well was a formidable opponent for the cowards who mitigated the horrific crimeupon African American community Mind Boggling The slaves were freed to only enter same harsh treatment.endured in captivity .I didn't know Ms Well was a formidable opponent for the cowards who mitigated the horrific crimeupon African American community

  26. 4 out of 5

    Laine

    If real history is your thing, this is a must to read. For me, it needed to be taken in small doses. This is true horror guaranteed to cause nightmares. Ida Wells was a black journalist who documented lynchings in the late 1800s. Her writings can be found and downloaded free from gutenberg.org

  27. 5 out of 5

    Maria

    MUST ADD TO YOUR LIBRARY If your black in America you need this piece of history in your library Ida was there definition of a ride or die. This sista was unapologetic, revolutionary, beautiful, magical and relentless at telling the truth about earth's cancer called racism. MUST ADD TO YOUR LIBRARY If your black in America you need this piece of history in your library Ida was there definition of a ride or die. This sista was unapologetic, revolutionary, beautiful, magical and relentless at telling the truth about earth's cancer called racism.

  28. 5 out of 5

    Bridget

    cheating but not really since I read it all. more people need to read this presently. I wonder if Stephen King was influenced by Wells because use too much detail in their writing.

  29. 4 out of 5

    S. B. Letham

    Still as relevant today as when it was written. Never forget.

  30. 4 out of 5

    Hanna

    The lists.

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