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Josefine, die Sängerin oder Das Volk der Mäuse

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Josefine ist ein umschwärmter Star, auch wenn nicht ganz klar ist, worin sie sich eigentlich von anderen unterscheidet. Ist es ihr Selbstverständnis als Künstlerin, die Inszenierung von etwas Alltäglichem in großer Pose, oder erfüllt sie geheime Bedürfnisse ihres Volkes? Kafkas letzte Erzählung, vielleicht sein literarisches Testament, lotet mit Ironie und Humor die ambiva Josefine ist ein umschwärmter Star, auch wenn nicht ganz klar ist, worin sie sich eigentlich von anderen unterscheidet. Ist es ihr Selbstverständnis als Künstlerin, die Inszenierung von etwas Alltäglichem in großer Pose, oder erfüllt sie geheime Bedürfnisse ihres Volkes? Kafkas letzte Erzählung, vielleicht sein literarisches Testament, lotet mit Ironie und Humor die ambivalente Position des Künstlers und seine Beziehung zur Gesellschaft aus. Mit dem Werkbeitrag aus Kindlers Literatur Lexikon. Mit dem Autorenporträt aus dem Metzler Lexikon Weltliteratur. Mit Daten zu Leben und Werk, exklusiv verfasst von der Redaktion der Zeitschrift für Literatur TEXT + KRITIK. Franz Kafka wurde am 3. Juli 1883 als Sohn jüdischer Eltern in Prag geboren. Nach einem Jurastudium, das er 1906 mit der Promotion abschloß, trat Kafka 1908 in die »Arbeiter-Unfall-Versicherungs-Anstalt« ein, deren Beamter er bis zu seiner frühzeitigen Pensionierung im Jahr 1922 blieb. Im Spätsommer 1917 erlitt Franz Kafka einen Blutsturz; es war der Ausbruch der Tuberkulose, an deren Folgen er am 3. Juni 1924, noch nicht 41 Jahre alt, starb.


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Josefine ist ein umschwärmter Star, auch wenn nicht ganz klar ist, worin sie sich eigentlich von anderen unterscheidet. Ist es ihr Selbstverständnis als Künstlerin, die Inszenierung von etwas Alltäglichem in großer Pose, oder erfüllt sie geheime Bedürfnisse ihres Volkes? Kafkas letzte Erzählung, vielleicht sein literarisches Testament, lotet mit Ironie und Humor die ambiva Josefine ist ein umschwärmter Star, auch wenn nicht ganz klar ist, worin sie sich eigentlich von anderen unterscheidet. Ist es ihr Selbstverständnis als Künstlerin, die Inszenierung von etwas Alltäglichem in großer Pose, oder erfüllt sie geheime Bedürfnisse ihres Volkes? Kafkas letzte Erzählung, vielleicht sein literarisches Testament, lotet mit Ironie und Humor die ambivalente Position des Künstlers und seine Beziehung zur Gesellschaft aus. Mit dem Werkbeitrag aus Kindlers Literatur Lexikon. Mit dem Autorenporträt aus dem Metzler Lexikon Weltliteratur. Mit Daten zu Leben und Werk, exklusiv verfasst von der Redaktion der Zeitschrift für Literatur TEXT + KRITIK. Franz Kafka wurde am 3. Juli 1883 als Sohn jüdischer Eltern in Prag geboren. Nach einem Jurastudium, das er 1906 mit der Promotion abschloß, trat Kafka 1908 in die »Arbeiter-Unfall-Versicherungs-Anstalt« ein, deren Beamter er bis zu seiner frühzeitigen Pensionierung im Jahr 1922 blieb. Im Spätsommer 1917 erlitt Franz Kafka einen Blutsturz; es war der Ausbruch der Tuberkulose, an deren Folgen er am 3. Juni 1924, noch nicht 41 Jahre alt, starb.

30 review for Josefine, die Sängerin oder Das Volk der Mäuse

  1. 5 out of 5

    Gaurav

    What Dante and Shakespeare were for their ages, Kafka if for ours. -George Steiner Cracking a nut is really not an art form, and so no one will dare to call an audience together and entertain it by cracking nuts. If he does it nevertheless, and does so successfully, then it must be a matter of something more than merely cracking nuts. Or it is cracking nuts, but we must have ignored some aspect of this art form because we mastered it too well and it took this new nutcracker to reveal its true nat What Dante and Shakespeare were for their ages, Kafka if for ours. -George Steiner Cracking a nut is really not an art form, and so no one will dare to call an audience together and entertain it by cracking nuts. If he does it nevertheless, and does so successfully, then it must be a matter of something more than merely cracking nuts. Or it is cracking nuts, but we must have ignored some aspect of this art form because we mastered it too well and it took this new nutcracker to reveal its true nature to us, and it can even help its demonstration if he is a little less proficient at nutcracking than the rest of us. As you traverse through the initial phrases of the story, you feel a familiar sense foreboding; it occurs to you that you’re losing its track as if you are unable to get hold of the story. A sudden urge, out of anxiety, compels you to read it again, as if some sorts of teasing tricks are being played by the author and an uneasiness surrounds you that the prose would reveal itself differently every time you visit it. So, gradually but certainly, you dive into sea of outlandish probabilities which triggers your brain to conjure up outrageously probable motives, meanings and themes. The inability to interpret the metaphors, which further accentuated by the nature of the author’s fictional point of view, makes it all the more enigmatic. Such issues seem no more acute than in Josephine the Singer or the Mouse Folk which may be said to be significant statement on the role of artist in the society. As soon as you are about to reach some conclusion, your confidence starts quivering, perhaps the conclusion you have drawn seems to fail you as there may be other probable answers. Welcome to the world of Kafka or Kafkaesque as we know it. We see that artists know within themselves that their art is true, but without public interest they cannot achieve their goal, whether it is to produce the aesthetic effect, or to have this effect recognized to the extent that they feel is appropriate. The need of Other (what mentioned by Sartre in Being and Nothingness) to get acknowledgement or acceptance of our existence by others constitutes what Sartre called Bad Faith and hence they act inauthentically. The artist’s desire to occupy or knowledge of belonging in the center of the scene may be valid, but society will not necessarily agree–a predicament that Kafka struggled with throughout his career as an author. While Josephine’s art does seem to have served a pleasant if not necessary function among the community, she is unable to convince them that she or her art are entirely worthy of her desired position in the sacred center. The story could be said as an examination of the shifting perspective of narrator, as usually it is the case with Kafka. It represents, thorough analysis of the status of the artist- not a condemnation, not a defense, but merely a statement of the condition. The story could be taken as a close psychological study between an artist and her intended audience. We have a third person, omniscient narrator, unreliable of course as the case with Kafka, who says that Josephine’s art does not appear to be exceptional in itself, or anything else which makes Josephine superior to others in their community. Though when she performs, and there is no denying that her performances have an exceptional, almost opium-like effect on the crowds that form around her. Even in moments of intense danger, if Josephine begins to sing, the perpetually overworked, creatures, living on fringes of life will pause and divert their energies, gathering around her to convene in rapt attention and silence through her performance. This however, is not the case; unconditional loyalty is barely known to our people, who love above all things admittedly innocent guile, harmless gossip consisting merely of moving the lips; such people are not able to give themselves unconditionally, and Josefine probably senses this too, it is in fact what she struggles against with every effort of her weak larynx. Kafka’s story raises some key questions, bringing to mind the delicate and sometimes strained relationship between modern artists and their audience: what criteria are necessary for a performance or piece to be recognized as art, and who is qualified to validate it as such? What if the recognition she gets from her community, the mouse people, is just out of mere sympathy and not a true recognition of her talent at all; and we know sympathy is one of those human qualities which are perceived kind but actually represents brutality of humanity. The sympathetic attitude of us towards someone reduces his/ her existence to nothingness and all her/ his projections turn out to be inauthentic, robbing one from any sense of comfort that inauthentic existence might seem to convey. We find another claim in the story, Josephine thinks that she is the one who protects and serves her community through the seemingly sacrifice she makes by singing to them? Why does the community acknowledge the effect her songs have on it on the first place, however collectively refuse to give her the appreciation of the art that she requests to them. Of course, she doesn’t rescue us and she doesn’t give us strength, it’s easy to play the part of a rescuer of these particular people, who are habituated to suffering, unsparing of themselves, quick to make their minds up, familiar with death, only appearing to be timid because of the atmosphere of derring-do in which they constantly live, and in addition are as prolific as they are brave- it’s an easy thing as I say to come along and claim to be rescuer of these people, who have somehow always managed to rescue themselves, with such loses that the historian- in general we neglect the study of history- is apt to go rigid with shock. Though it may be accepted that she and her song possess powerful impact over the community, but it’s hard to define, in fact, undefinable, if anything, differentiates her from the rest of the community. The We see through the eye of narrator, since as we reader we are at mercy of him/ her, that the community fail to understand the meaning and the power behind Josephine’s song. They fail to understand if there is something unique with her art, or seemingly art. Meanwhile, our artist, Josephine demands that she should be relieved from her mundane daily chores, which would give her artistic ‘being’ free hand to express itself uninterruptedly. However, her demands are refuted with disdain as her listeners believe there is no need to do so, the relationship of Josefine with them remain quite tense and enigmatic, making it a perfect Kafkaesque universe. Often the public’s negative reaction is the very reason an artist will rise to fame. Think of the initially negative public reaction to the rise of the impressionists, abstract expressionists, however, the more attention the creations of an artist get, the more significant they became, the more artists imitate their style, and gradually they become iconic figures in the public domain, as we know them. Despite the confusion over the validity of her song or the source of its power, Josephine’s singing does–for whatever reason–serve the ethical function of the esthetic. If this really were to be the case then Josephine's claims would be totally understandable-yes, one could to a certain extent see in this freedom that the folk would have bestowed upon her, in such an extra-ordinary, uniquely privileged gift, this bestowal that-truth to tell-contradicts what the law requires, one could see a confirmation of the fact that, just as Josephine asserts, the folk doesn't understand anything at all of what she's about, that it stands helplessly in awe before her artistry, that it is unworthy and abashed by its incapacity and that as recompense for this 'wrong' that it has inflicted upon her, that all of these misunderstandings might be balanced out-or at least it strives to balance them out-that just as her art extends beyond their capacities of conceptualization, so too her person and her wishes are placed beyond their authority: that, in short, she is immune from the commands and from the powers of the ruling authority. The unreliable narrator of the story holds strong grip over your consciousness and inquisitiveness throughout the story, we see that the aggregate energy about the snapshots of harmony that encompass Josephine is the nearest her kin come to rising above their thorough, distressing real factors. Josephine's request that she is singing to hard of hearing ears, and the likenesses between her specialty and the customary funneling that different individuals from the network have seen help to re-make the dumbfounding structure of distinguishing proof with and estrangement from the focal figure. As the mouse people alienates themselves from the art of Josephine, as they fail to perceive the artistic quality of Josephine’ s art; however, it increases the enigma of Josephine, the singer, and in way provides more importance than she originally had. Though it may create an aura of divinity around our beloved singer, Josephine; if the audience identifies with her too well, the aura may be shattered and shred to nothingness. The audience at once makes Josephine’s art possible by recognizing it as such, and threatens its continued existence through possessing the capacity to evaluate it and deem it unworthy. The inauthentic projection of Josephine never allows her to achieve the great heights of invincibility she always dreams of. Our unwillingness to grant social distinction to artists inhibits our ability to grant their artwork or performance a similar distinction. It is this unwillingness that Josephine attempts to combat within her community. Our angelic narrator here shows his might once again as he explains the motifs of Josephine are purely speculative, so that the negative, power-hungry portrait he paints of her winds up saying more about himself than it does about Josephine, perhaps because he is one from the mouse people but nonetheless, he feels sympathetic towards Josephine for the reasons unknown to him . We see that our narrator gradually realizes the threat imposed by Josephine to him as she has been trying to express herself right from the outset of the narrative but Kafka, though always remain speculative and neutral, never really allowed her to do so. However, we see there is stark difference here from other stories of Kafka- the other character is being made quite strong here and in fact she even threatens the omnipotent narrator of Kafkaesque world. We find that Kafka never really specifies who or what really are, the mouse people, exactly. It is obvious that they have a very mouse-like mentality, in the sense that they are very organized, practical, witty, hardworking, communal, and connected to one another. Like a normal human being they seem to feel constant fear of death, weakness, and hostility. The commentators and critics around the world interprets the story in different ways, some of them say that Kafka used the mouse folk to portray the socioeconomic and political position of the Jews of his time and society, while others believe that he wrote them as he did to portray the people’s sense of community. It is interesting to note that the narrator likes Josephine music and empathizes with her, but at the same time, he doesn’t fully support some of Josephine’s claims and opinions. In a way, he is the bridge between Josephine and her community, but who could not never really leave his pre-conceived notions and prejudices. On one level, the story is a bit of anthropomorphic nonsense. But on a deeper level, it is a melancholy observation of the randomness of existence and a mirror of our own human pretensions and absurdities, seen through the eyes of one of the humbler creatures of the Earth. In his different works, tormented, misjudged or overlooked artists, for example, the Hunger Artist or even the character of the land surveyor in The Castle either can't get or can't keep up affirmation or acknowledgment for the aptitudes they realize they have. Kafka's craftsmen are dedicated to their specialty with their whole existence, much as he seemed to be. Composing devoured his life, his body, and his psyche as he received a thorough way of life of close to starvation and acrobatic to help it. Although we are unmusical, we have a tradition of singing; in the old days our people did sing; this is mentioned in legends and some songs have actually survived, which, it is true, no one can now sing

  2. 4 out of 5

    Το Άθχημο γατί του θενιόρ Γκουαναμίρου

    Josephine, the Singer or the Mouse Folk (Josefine, die Sängerin oder Das Volk der Mäuse) Η Ζοζεφίνα, η τραγουδίστρια ή ο λαός των ποντικιών. Η Ζοζεφίνα είναι ένα άμουσο πλάσμα. Ένα ποντίκι δεν μπορεί να τραγουδάει, μόνο να βγάζει τσιριχτές φωνούλες μπορεί. Είναι αυτό τέχνη; Τη βραδιά που ο Kafka έγραψε την τελευταία σελίδα της ιστορίας του, γύρισε στον φίλο του, τον Klopstock και του είπε " Νομίζω πως ξεκίνησα τη μελέτη για το τσίριγμα των ζώων την κατάλληλη στιγμή. Μόλις τελείωσα μια ιστορία γι' Josephine, the Singer or the Mouse Folk (Josefine, die Sängerin oder Das Volk der Mäuse) Η Ζοζεφίνα, η τραγουδίστρια ή ο λαός των ποντικιών. Η Ζοζεφίνα είναι ένα άμουσο πλάσμα. Ένα ποντίκι δεν μπορεί να τραγουδάει, μόνο να βγάζει τσιριχτές φωνούλες μπορεί. Είναι αυτό τέχνη; Τη βραδιά που ο Kafka έγραψε την τελευταία σελίδα της ιστορίας του, γύρισε στον φίλο του, τον Klopstock και του είπε " Νομίζω πως ξεκίνησα τη μελέτη για το τσίριγμα των ζώων την κατάλληλη στιγμή. Μόλις τελείωσα μια ιστορία γι' αυτό". Το ίδιο εκείνο βράδυ άρχισε να νιώθει ένα έντονο κάψιμο στο λαιμό. Η φυματίωση είχε επηρεάζει τον λάρυγγα. Λίγους μήνες αργότερα θα πεθάνει. (βλέπε: Letters to Friends, Family, and Editors, εκδ. Schocken, 2013, σελ. 665) Ωστόσο στο μέτρο των δυνατοτήτων της η Ζοζεφίνα κάνει ό,τι καλύτερο μπορεί. Αυτό που δεν μπορεί να αντέξει, το μόνο πράγμα που την πτοεί σε σημείο εξαφάνισης, εκεί που αποτυγχάνει πλήρως, είναι το να συνδυάσει τη ζωή της καλλιτέχνιδας και τη ζωή της απλής εργάτριας. Γιατί παρά το όποιο μουσικό της ταλέντο, είναι υποχρεωμένη να διατηρεί την καθημερινή της εργασία και όσο και να επιδιώκει την εξαίρεσή της, κανένας δεν εγκρίνει το αίτημά της. Ένα από τα αφεντικά του Kafka, o Eisner, προϊστάμενός του στην Assicurazioni Generali, τον είχε παρομοιάζει με εκείνους τους τεμπελχανάδες ήρωες του Robert Walser που τρέχουν χαρούμενοι εδώ κι εκεί και δεν κάνουν τίποτα, έξω από το να προσφέρουν ικανή ψυχαγωγία στους αναγνώστες των μυθιστορημάτων. Ωστόσο παρ 'όλο που ο ίδιος ο Kafka δεν αρνείται πως ίσως επιφανειακά να φαίνεται έτσι, στα μάτια των άλλων, και δη στα μάτια του αφεντικού του, μοιάζει περισσότερο με εκείνους τους δρομείς σε κούρσες αλόγων που για να καλύψουν την καθυστερημένη εκκίνησή τους, επιταχύνουν υπερβολικά με αποτέλεσμα να πέσουν από τη ράχη του αλόγου. Ποτέ δεν καταφέρνουν να τελειώσουν την κούρσα και καταλήγουν πεσμένοι στο γρασίδι, σαν τα σκουλήκια. (βλέπε επιστολή προς Eisner, Πράγα 1909). Υπάρχουν κάποια πράγματα για τα οποία έχω σχηματίσει την προσωπική μου άποψη σχετικά με τη σχέση του Kafka και την εργασία του. Είχε καταφέρει μέσα από τις οικογενειακές του διασυνδέσεις να βρει δουλειές που πολύς κόσμος θα τις ζήλευε. Ήταν, καίτοι στα γραπτά του μπορεί να δίνει την εντύπωση για το αντίθετο, εργατικός και φιλότιμος. Από την άλλη δεν του άρεσε το είδος της δουλειάς του, το έκανε με συνέπεια αλλά δεν μπορούσε να το υποφέρει. Ήταν πάντα, ακόμα και πριν πάθει τη φυματίωση, ασθενικός, αδύναμος, υπέφερε από λιποθυμικές κρίσεις και ημικρανίες. Και μέσα σε όλα αυτά η συγγραφή, έγραφε κυρίως τη νύχτα, του στερούσε πολύτιμο χρόνο από την ανάπαυσή του. Στην ουσία δεν θα ήταν υπερβολικό το συμπέρασμά μου, πως αυτός ο δύστυχος άνθρωπος έλιωσε, έσβησε από την εξάντληση. Δεν τρεφόταν σωστά, έχανε συνέχεια βάρος, γράφει ο ίδιος στην αδερφή του την Ottla, ήδη από το 1911, πως "δεν μπορώ να μασήσω κανονικά το κρέας", τελικά κατέληξε να είναι χορτοφάγος, το οποίο καίτοι είναι πιο υγιεινό, ωστόσο σε μια εποχή πολέμου σημαίνει πως προφανώς δεν λάμβανε ούτε στο ελάχιστο τα θρεπτικά συστατικά που χρειάζονταν για να συντηρηθεί κι αυτό είχε αναμφίβολα επιπτώσεις στην ψυχική, πνευματική και σωματική του υγεία. Εκεί όμως που απέτυχε τελείως, είναι πως δεν κατάφερε να ζήσει και να βγάλει τα χρήματα που θα του εξασφάλιζαν τα προς το ζην από το λογοτεχνικό του έργο. Είναι από αυτές τις τραγικές ειρωνείες της ζωής, αν σκεφτεί κανείς πόσα χρήματα βγάζει σήμερα το έργο του, το χειρόγραφο της Δίκης πουλήθηκε σε δημοπρασία στα 1988 για 2 εκατομμύρια δολάρια! Η Ζοζεφίνα προσπάθησε να εξηγήσει στον λαό των ποντικιών τους λόγους που ζητούσε να της επιτρέψουν την εξαίρεση από την καθημερινή εργασία: "Το βάρος της δουλειάς είναι κακό για τη φωνή της, το βάρος της εργασίας οπωσδήποτε δεν είναι τίποτα συγκριτικά με εκείνο του τραγουδιού, αλλά την εμποδίζει από το να μπορεί να αναπαυθεί επαρκώς μετά από το τραγούδι της, πρέπει να φτάσει στην πλήρη εξάντληση κι έτσι ακόμα, δεν μπορεί να φτάσει στο μέγιστο των δυνατοτήτων της". Η ειρωνεία ωστόσο στην περίπτωση της Ζοζεφίνας είναι πως στην πραγματικότητα δεν τραγουδάει. Τσιρίζει. Δεν είναι μια πραγματική τραγουδίστρια. Έτσι ένιωθε - εν μέρη - και ο ίδιος ο Kafka, ειδικά εκείνη την εποχή, σε σχέση με το συγγραφικό του έργο, γι' αυτό και έκαψε ένα μεγάλο τμήμα από τα χειρόγραφά του και ό,τι απέμεινε ζήτησε από τον φίλο του, τον Max Brod να το αποτελειώσει εκείνος. Το παράξενο είναι πως την ίδια εποχή που έκαιγε τα χειρόγραφά του, ετοίμαζε την τελευταία του συλλογή, υπό τον γενικό τίτλο "Ein Hungerkünstler" το οποίο εκδόθηκε από τον εκδοτικό Verlag Die Schmiede, στα 1924, λίγους μήνες μετά τον θάνατό του. Μέσα στις λιγοστές ιστορίες της συλλογής ήταν και η Ζοζεφίνα. Έκανε μόνος του τις τελευταίες διορθώσεις στα κείμενά του, δεν ήταν πια σε θέση να μιλήσει, ήταν τόσο υποσιτισμένος που έμοιαζε με σκελετό, και μην μπορώντας να επικοινωνήσει με άλλο τρόπο γράφει σε ένα χαρτάκι στον φίλο του τον Klopstock, που δεν άντεχε να τον βλέπει να κουράζεται με τα γραψίματά του: "Πόσα χρόνια ακόμα θα χρειαστεί να το υπομείνεις; Πόσο καιρό ακόμα θα μπορώ να υπομένω όσο εσύ υπομένεις; Τώρα θέλω να το διαβάσω. Θα με ταράξει υπερβολικά ίσως, ωστόσο πρέπει να το βιώσω από την αρχή". Κι όταν τέλειωσε τις διορθώσεις, έκλαψε για πολλή ώρα, μαρτυρεί ο φίλος του...

  3. 5 out of 5

    Fernando

    Una excelente combinación de Kafka para unir el pesar del pueblo judío con el arte.

  4. 4 out of 5

    Mohajerino

    یوزفینهٔ آوازخوان یا مردمِ موش «یوزفینه» در بهار 1924 نوشته شد.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Jesica Sabrina Canto

    Hasta el momento es la obra de Kafka que mas me ha gustado, y ello se debe mas que nada a que plantea una mirada sobre el arte. Como escritora todas las diferentes miradas sobre el arte me interesan. Lo que destaca este texto con otros que he leído que plantean una metáfora sobre el arte, es que acá no aparece solamente la relación entre el autor y la obra, sino que aparece el papel que juega en esa relación la sociedad. En una palabra INTERESANTE.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Constanza A Morales

    Kafka siempre logra impresionar aunque sus temas sean los mismos. Capta una esencia, la transforma , la alimenta de símbolos y luego nos la da de comer para que la mastiquemos por horas dejándonos al igual que en un principio, con un vacío en el estómago y en la mente.

  7. 4 out of 5

    وائل المنعم

    I read it translated to English by Willa and Edwin Muir. I liked some parts espically the ones that descripe the singer and her voice.

  8. 5 out of 5

    Bine

    Habe ich je einen Stern vergeben für ein Buch? Ich weiß nicht. Die Geschichte ist für mich keine Geschichte, sondern eine 11seitige Beschreibung. Mühselig zu lesen. Wie immer alles sehr allegorisch bei Kafka und ich mag diesen Stil ja ganz gerne. Ich muss aber sagen, dass ich Kafka-Werke nach dem ersten Lesen eigentlich nie mag und je mehr ich darüber erfahre, desto besser gefällt es mir dann. Also kann es gut sein, dass die Sternzahl noch nach oben geht.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Alina-roxana Gîrbea

    To read after: "the police rat" by Roberto Bolano, a wonderful reply to the story. To read after: "the police rat" by Roberto Bolano, a wonderful reply to the story.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Bryce

    Warning: this review contains a few spoilers, but I tried my best to keep them out. I only read the story "Metamorphasis," which I found to be very interesting. At the very beginning, the main character, Gregor, wakes up as a bug and tries going to work to support his family, as he had done as a human. This goes as anyone would expect it to. Throughout the story, he tries to retain his humanity and stay as human as possible, but he can only watch as he causes his family more and more problems du Warning: this review contains a few spoilers, but I tried my best to keep them out. I only read the story "Metamorphasis," which I found to be very interesting. At the very beginning, the main character, Gregor, wakes up as a bug and tries going to work to support his family, as he had done as a human. This goes as anyone would expect it to. Throughout the story, he tries to retain his humanity and stay as human as possible, but he can only watch as he causes his family more and more problems due to his new body. Over time, he becomes an extra burden, making his life more and more painful as the story progresses. No matter how much he focused on business, family was what mattered most to him. The symbolism of the story adds meaning and depth to it. While he was a human, he enjoyed eating foods such as milk and bread. As a bug, however, he enjoyed rotten food scraps. This shows how before he had focused his life entirely around business, he could enjoy life, but as his work consumed him more and more, he became rotten and disconnected from his family which he so dearly loved. His metamorphosis represented something very different: Death. As a person, Gregor was very loved and a crucial part of his family. He provided for his family and interacted with them before he was a bug, but afterwards he was completely gone, nothing more than a freakish creature they had to take care of. The family learned to function without him, and all he could do was watch as he was forgotten. I personally enjoyed the story because of the emphasis on the importance of family. Throughout the story, all that was in Gregor’s mind was his family. He was focused on how he could provide for them or how he could show them that he still cared. Though many of his attempts were futile, he was determined to be a part of the family as much as he possibly could. Everything Gregor did, before and after his change, was out of love for his family and his desire to help them, all the way to the end of the story.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Angel Ruiz

    Inolvidable fabula de Kafka. Pocas veces nos encontramos frente a historias que planteen de manera tan clara los límites del arte, la naturaleza del pueblo y los matices que hay entre seguidores y detractores. Mis opiniones sobre la protagonista variaron cuando el cuento se acercaba a su final. 9/10

  12. 5 out of 5

    Sophia

    Die Geschichte zeigt gut ein gewisses Verhältnis zwischen Künstler und Publikum, zeigt aber auch, wie der Künstler sich wünscht, von der Kunst zu leben, sich aber auch schnell darin verlieren und abheben kann. Wäre Josefine etwas sympathischer, hätte mir das Lesen vielleicht etwas mehr Spaß bereitet.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Behrouz Sadeghi

    Understanding Franz Kafka is one of the most difficult things in this world. The content of Kafka's stories is philosophical and difficult so We have to read a story many times until we can find out the purpose of the author. Understanding Franz Kafka is one of the most difficult things in this world. The content of Kafka's stories is philosophical and difficult so We have to read a story many times until we can find out the purpose of the author.

  14. 5 out of 5

    Farhana Lüba

    It was like reading about BTS, and why people like them, and what's eventually gonna happen to them :v It was like reading about BTS, and why people like them, and what's eventually gonna happen to them :v

  15. 4 out of 5

    Johanna

    I've only read this once and didn't understand. I'll try to update after I re-read the story I've only read this once and didn't understand. I'll try to update after I re-read the story

  16. 4 out of 5

    Karen

    Josephine the Singer explains why people become famous for being famous, so it's a modern-day fairy tale. Josephine the Singer explains why people become famous for being famous, so it's a modern-day fairy tale.

  17. 4 out of 5

    Angie Gareau

    Only read Metamorphosis-hated it

  18. 4 out of 5

    Lucky Tuck

    Interesting concept, but a slow, dragging read.

  19. 5 out of 5

    Bauti

    DIOS, la capacidad de decir TAN POCO con TANTAS PALABRAS es tanto admirable como hartante (énfasis en hartante). ¿No sé si será una alegoría de algo? ¡¿?!

  20. 5 out of 5

    Adrien C.

    Kafka's writing is too good for this world, but I'm very grateful its available to us. A story to read over and over again in a dark room, deep into the night by dim candlelight. Kafka's writing is too good for this world, but I'm very grateful its available to us. A story to read over and over again in a dark room, deep into the night by dim candlelight.

  21. 5 out of 5

    Maria Jose

    This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Cuento rarisimo, creo que habla del arte, de la creación, pero no tanto como contenido si no como forma, es decir, no es que Josefina cante muy bien, es la performance que monta cuando lo hace que la convierte en un ser casi mítico en su mundo, nada interesado por otra parte en el arte. Me lo he leido porque Bolaño escribió un cuento del cual Alex Rigola hizo una obra de teatro, el policia de las ratas, en el cual se inspiró en este cuento.

  22. 5 out of 5

    بسام عبد العزيز

    يوسفينا (حسب الترجمة التي معي) مغنية مشهورة.. بل هى المغنية الوحيدة في مجتمع الفئران.. إنها الصوت الذي يجمع كل الفئران حولها.. و مع ذلك فلا أحد يعرف مصدر جاذبيتها.. ففنها لا يختلف كثيرا عن أي فأر آخر.. صوتها لا يختلف كيرا عن أي صوت عادي.. و مع ذلك فهى المغنية الأولى و الوحيدة.. على العكس من العديد من قصص كافكا افتقدت هنا الحيرة التي كنت أشعر بها عندما أجد أكثر من تفسير للرواية.. فالقصة هنا تبدو و كأنها إسقاطا ذاتيا على كافكا نفسه في رأيي.. في القصة تبدو يوسفينا فنانة موهوبة.. و مع ذلك لا أحد يعرف يوسفينا (حسب الترجمة التي معي) مغنية مشهورة.. بل هى المغنية الوحيدة في مجتمع الفئران.. إنها الصوت الذي يجمع كل الفئران حولها.. و مع ذلك فلا أحد يعرف مصدر جاذبيتها.. ففنها لا يختلف كثيرا عن أي فأر آخر.. صوتها لا يختلف كيرا عن أي صوت عادي.. و مع ذلك فهى المغنية الأولى و الوحيدة.. على العكس من العديد من قصص كافكا افتقدت هنا الحيرة التي كنت أشعر بها عندما أجد أكثر من تفسير للرواية.. فالقصة هنا تبدو و كأنها إسقاطا ذاتيا على كافكا نفسه في رأيي.. في القصة تبدو يوسفينا فنانة موهوبة.. و مع ذلك لا أحد يعرف سبب موهبتها.. و عندما نقوم بتحليل أداء يوسفينا على المسرح و صوتها فإننا لا نجد فيه أي شيء يستحق كل هذه الشهرة و الجاذبية.. هل كان كافكا يرى نفسه أنه لا يختلف في كتاباته عن أي شخص عادي؟ مع ملاحظة أنه قد طلب من صديقه ان يتخلص من أعماله قبل وفاته لأنها لا ترضيه؟؟ أم أن كافكا كان يتحدث عن الفن بشكل عام و يقول ان الفنان في حد ذاته هو شخص عادي تماما و الجماهير -وهم هنا الفئران- هم من يمنحونه تلك الجاذبية؟ فالجماهير هى من تخلق أساطير الفن فقط لأنها تختار أن تفعل هذا.. و هكذا تسير العلاقة بين يوسفينا و بين الجماهير.. فالجماهير تمجد يوسفينا و يوسفينا تشعر بأنها أكبر و أعظم و أقوى.. حتى لو كان هذا غير صحيح.. إلى أن تاتي اللحظة التي تبدأ فيها يوسفينا بالشعور بالإجهاد.. تبدأ يوسفينا بالخفوت و الانزواء.. وقتها لا يقدر احد من الجماهير هذا.. فكيف يقدرون هذا و هى في نظرهم إلهة يجب عليها الغناء للأبد؟! فلا يتخيل أحد منهم ان تكون مجرد بشرية تمضحل و تبهت.. فهكذا كانت القصة.. جماهير تقرر أن تجعل من شخص عادي أسطورة.. و تصدق تلك الأسطورة التي خلقتها.. لكن ما يلفت الانتباه هو اختيار كافكا لأن تكون الأحداث في مجتمع من الفئران.. لماذا الفئران تحديدا؟؟ يبدو لي ان كافكا يريد أن يؤكد على فكرة التشابه الشديد بين الناس .. فالفئران تقريبا لديها نفس اللون و الشكل.. بالإضافة إلى كثرتها اللامتناهية.. فكافكا يؤكد على فكرة القطيع.. العدد اللانهائي من البشر الذي لا يتوقف أبدا ليسأل .. بل يسير دائما تحت راية الرأي السائد من حوله.. ليست من أعمالي المفضلة لكافكا..

  23. 5 out of 5

    Mariana

    "Por bello que esto sea y por mucho que otros nos envidien, no nos es permitido dar a nuestros niños una verdadera niñez. Eso trae consecuencias: una perpetua y arraigada puerilidad penetra en nuestro pueblo. En contraste directo con nuestra mejor condición, que es el entendimiento práctico, obramos muchas veces del modo más tonto, justamente como los niños, derrochadores irreflexivos y generosos. Y aunque nuestra alegría ya no puede conservar la fuerza de la alegría infantil, algo nos queda, si "Por bello que esto sea y por mucho que otros nos envidien, no nos es permitido dar a nuestros niños una verdadera niñez. Eso trae consecuencias: una perpetua y arraigada puerilidad penetra en nuestro pueblo. En contraste directo con nuestra mejor condición, que es el entendimiento práctico, obramos muchas veces del modo más tonto, justamente como los niños, derrochadores irreflexivos y generosos. Y aunque nuestra alegría ya no puede conservar la fuerza de la alegría infantil, algo nos queda, sin duda. Hace tiempo que Josefina aprovecha esta puerilidad."

  24. 5 out of 5

    Hasan

    The story's double title is one of its outward features. Kafka attached special meaning to this. As expressed in the short story itself. Arguing that it expresses an equilibrium, a set of scales, the careful weighing between the evaluation of Josephine and the people around her. Apart from underlining the aspect of mass behavior of the people who adore Josephine, he could have wanted to depict the situation of Jews scattered all over the world. Worth reading once! The story's double title is one of its outward features. Kafka attached special meaning to this. As expressed in the short story itself. Arguing that it expresses an equilibrium, a set of scales, the careful weighing between the evaluation of Josephine and the people around her. Apart from underlining the aspect of mass behavior of the people who adore Josephine, he could have wanted to depict the situation of Jews scattered all over the world. Worth reading once!

  25. 5 out of 5

    Ivonne García

    Josefina la cantora o el pueblo de los ratones fue el último cuento de Kafka, escrito en 1924 durante su agonía por tuberculosis. Su contenido puede interpretarse como una reflexión sobre el significado del arte o más literalmente, como una reflexión autobiográfica sobre la muerte del escritor.

  26. 4 out of 5

    Vasilhs Tsarpalas

  27. 4 out of 5

    Isaac Galassi

  28. 5 out of 5

    Ryan Von Mises

  29. 5 out of 5

    Cezara Corbu

  30. 5 out of 5

    Yashvir Dalaya

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